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Latin Verbs

Everything you need to know about verbs by the end of Latin II
by

Nelson Berry

on 11 January 2016

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Transcript of Latin Verbs

The Subjunctive Mood
Tenses
Active: present stem (1st p. p. - o) + vowel augment + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt
Present
**Vowel augment
1st conjugation: e
2nd - 4th conjugations: a
Passive: present stem + vowel augment + r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur
e.g. porto, portare audio, audire
port + e + m = portem audi + a + m = audiam
e.g. habeo, habere loquor, loqui
habe + a + r = habear loqu + a + r = loquar
Active: present active infinitive + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt
Imperfect
**Present active infinitive
Passive: present active infinitive + r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur
e.g. duco, ducere clamo, clamare
ducere + m = ducerem clamare + m = clamarem
e.g. contineo, continere conor, conari
continere + r = continerer ** conare + r = conarer
** Perfect Stems
Active: 3rd principal part - i
Passive: 4th principal part
Perfect
Active: perfect active stem + erim, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erint
Passive: perfect passive stem + sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint
sum, esse
sim simus
sis sitis
sit sint
Irregular Verbs
eo, ire
eam eamus
eas eatis
eat eant
e.g. sum, esse, fui, futurus iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus
fu + erim = fuerim iec + erim = iecerim
e.g. mitto, mittere, misi, missus vereor, vereri, veritus sum
missus + sim = missus sim veritus + sim = veritus sim
**Perfect Infinitives
Active: 3rd principal part - i + isse (1 word)
Passive: 4th principal part + esse (two words)
Pluperfect
Active: perfect active infinitive + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt
Passive: perfect passive infinitive + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt
e.g. tempto, temptare, temptavi, temptatus ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum
temptatus esse + m = temptatus essem ultus esse + m = ultus essem
e.g. incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus possum, posse, potui, ----
incepisse + m = incepissem potuisse + m = potuissem
Subordinate Clauses
Indicators
"cum"
subjunctive verb
"Cum" Clauses
Circumstantial
Translation of "cum" = "when"
Causal
Translation of "cum" = "since"
e.g. Cum magister ad ludum veniret, pueri eum salutaverunt.
e.g. Cum discipuli diligenter studuissent, multa verba intellexerunt.
Indicators
question word (why, how, when, who, etc.)
subjunctive verb
Indirect Question
No special translation
e.g. Magister puerum rogavit cur hic diu dixisset.

Puer non intellexit quomodo magister tot verba sciret.
"Ut" Clauses
Indicators
ut
adeo, ita, sic, talis, tam, tantus, tantum, tot
subjunctive verb (usually present or imperfect tenses)
Result
Translation of "ut" = "that"

Translate subjunctive verbs according to tense
(i.e. present tense = present translation, etc.
e.g. Vir ludum adeo amavit ut fieri magister constitueret.

Pueri tam diligenter studuerunt ut omnia verba scirent.
Verbs
The Indicative Mood
The Imperative Mood
The Sequence of Tenses
Primary Sequence
General
(Latin and English)
main verb is present, future, or future perfect
present tense shows action at same time
perfect tense shows action before
future tense shows action after
Secondary Sequence
main verb is imperfect, perfect, or pluperfect
imperfect tense shows action at same time
pluperfect tense shows action before
future "past" tense shows action after
Primary Sequence
Subordinate Subjunctive Clauses
main verb (indicative) is present, future, or future perfect
volo, nolo, malo, and possum follow sum's pattern
e.g. velim, nolim, malim, possim . . .
present tense shows action at same time or after
perfect tense shows action before
Secondary Sequence
main verb (indicative) is imperfect, perfect, or pluperfect
imperfect tense shows action at same time or after
pluperfect tense shows action before
Present
**Imperfect tense sign
"ba" in all conjugations
add "e" before "ba" in 3rd - 4th conj.
Imperfect
**Future tense sign
1st and 2nd conj: b (1st s. only), bi, bu (3rd pl. only)
3rd - 4th conj: a (1st s. only), e
Future
**perfect active stem: 3rd principal part -i
**perfect passive stem: 4th principal part
Perfect
active and passive use imperfect of "sum" as endings
Pluperfect
active and passive use future tense of "sum"
Future Perfect
Indicators
ut/ne
verb of ordering, urging, begging, asking, persuading, etc.
subjunctive verb (only present or imperfect tenses)
Indirect Command
Translate the subjunctive verb as if it were an objective infinitive. The "ut" has no translation here. The "ne" is translated as "not."
e.g. Magister pueros hortatus est ut diligentius studerent.
Pater puellas rogat ne loquantur.
If there is no specific person being commanded to do something,
then the translation of "ut" is "that."
e.g. Magister monuit ut labor mox finiretur
Personal Endings
m/o mus
s tis
t nt

Passive
(o)r mur
ris mini
tur ntur

**Perfect Active Indicative
i imus
isti istis
it erunt

**Present stem
1st - 3rd conjugation: 2nd princ. part -re
3rd io - 4th conjugation: 1st princ. part -o
Indicators
ut/ne
subjunctive verb (only present and imperfect tenses)
Purpose
Translation of "ut" = so that, in order to (verb)

Translation of "ne" = so that . . . not, in order not to (verb)
*lest the noun (verb)
e.g. Magister pueris facilem laborem dat ut omnia intellegant.

Pueri tacebant ne punirentur.
Active: Present stem + active personal endings
e.g. porto, portare duco, ducere
porta + s = portas **duce + s = ducis
**3rd conjugation "e" changes to short "i"
Passive: Present stem + passive personal endings
e.g. moneo, monere facio, facere
mone + ris = moneris **faci + ris = faceris
**3rd io conjugation "i" in 2nd person singular becomes short "e"
Fear
Conditionals
Tenses
Subordinate Clauses
Conditionals
Indicators
si/nisi
protasis is future or future perfect
apodosis is future
Future-More-Vivid
Translate the protasis as false present, the apodosis as regular future.
e.g. Si puer diligenter studebit, multa intelleget.

Nisi laborem finiverit, puero ludere non licebit
Protasis: the "if" or "conditional" clause
Apodosis: the main or "contingent" clause

si = "if"
nisi = "if . . . not" or "unless"

Conditionals are identified by the tense and mood of the verbs in the protasis and apodosis.
Basics
English example: If you build it, he will come.
Indicators
si/nisi
both clauses are in either present or imperfect
Simple Condition
Translate both clauses using progressive translations (i.e. present = is verbing, imperfect = was verbing)
English example: If he was listening, he was learning.
e.g. Nisi puer tacet, non discit.

Si magister loquebatur, discipuli audiebant.
Indicators
si/nisi
protasis and apodosis are in present
Future-Less-Vivid
Translate protasis as "should . . ." and apodosis as "would . . ."
English example: If we should go to the beach, we would have fun.
e.g. Si magister aeger fiat, discipuli tristissimi sint.

Nisi puer diligenter studeat, omnia non intellegat.
Indicators
si/nisi
protasis and apodosis are imperfect
Contrary-to-Fact Present
Translate protasis as "were verbing" and apodosis as "would be verbing"
English example: If I were at the beach, I would be swimming.
e.g. Si librum legerem, non magistrum audirem.

Nisi vir magnae patientiae essem, non magister essem.
Indicators
si/nisi
protasis and apodosis in pluperfect
Contrary-to-Fact Past
Translate protasis as "had verbed" and apodosis as "would have verbed"
English example: If I had not ducked, the ball would have hit me.
e.g. Nisi Caesar Rubiconem transivisset, dictator perpetuus non factus esset.

Si Cicero necatus esset, Catilina rem publicam delevisset.
Indicators
si/nisi
protasis and apodosis are a mix of two conditions
Mixed
Commonly seen with CTF Pres/FLV and CTF Past/CTF Pres
English example: If I were a rich man, I would build a big, tall house with rooms by the dozen right in the middle of the town.
e.g. Si puer magistrum audivisset, quid studere necesse esset sciret.

Nisi magister essem, actor esse velim.
Indicators
ut/ne
verb of fearing (e.g. metuo, vereor, timeo)
subjunctive verb (all tenses possible)
*ut indicates a negative fear (i.e. include "not" in your translation)
*ne indicates a positive fear
Use the following auxiliary verbs depending on the tense of the subjunctive verb:
Present: may Perfect: may have
Imperfect: might Pluperfect: might have
e.g. Discipuli metuunt ne labor difficilis sit.

Vereor ut laborem meum finiverim.
Verbals
Participles
a verbal noun declined in 2nd declension neuter sing.
can have direct object/dative with intransitive verbs
NO NOMINATIVE FORM
Gerunds
Usually translate as "verb-ing," sometimes translated as infinitive
Form: present stem (usually 2nd princ. part - "re") + nd + ending
**3rd -io and 4th conj. use 1st princ. part - o as present stem and add "end" + ending
e.g. laboro, laborare audio, audire
labora + nd + i = laborandi audi + end + i = audiendi
Cases and Uses
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
combines the subjective and objective genitives
look for a noun based on a verb or special nouns
With certain nouns
sample nouns based on verbs: timor (fear), amor (love), spes (hope)
sample special nouns: ars (skill), periculum (danger), facultas (opportunity)
Translate the gerund as "of" or "for" + "verbing"
e.g. Discipuli ad scholam multas facultates discendi habent.
same as regular genitive use
look for memor, opportunus (suitable), cupidus (desirous), plenus, and others
With certain adjectives
Translate as "of" or "for" + "verbing"
e.g. Ille puer legendi cupidus est.
always seen with either "causa" or "gratia" (both mean "for the sake of")
Purpose
Translate as "for the sake of verbing"
e.g. Magister discipulos iuvandi causa adest.
same as regular dative use
usually seen with verbs of giving
Indirect Object
Translate as "to" + "verbing"
e.g. Puer magnam operam melius legendo dedit.
same as other datives with adjectives, like reference
look for adjectives usually associated with datives
With adjectives
Sample adjectives: utilis (useful), similis, par (equal), idoneus (suitable)
Translate as "to" or "for" + "verbing"
e.g. Servi locum se celando idoneum petebant.
always seen with "ad"
Purpose
Translate as "to" + "verb"
e.g. Puer domum ad dormiendum ire vult.
same as regular means and cause uses of ablative
Means/Cause
Translate as "by" or "with" + "verbing"
e.g. Diligenter audiendo bene facies.
present stem (usually 2nd princ. part -re)
literal translation: "verbing"
can be translated with literal, relative, adverbial translations
Present Active
4th principal part of regular verbs (3rd of deponents)
Literal translation is "having been verbed"
Can be translated with simple, relative, or adverbial translations
Perfect Passive
start with perfect passive participle
literal translation: "about to verb"
other translations: going to, intending to, likely to
Future Active
Future Passive (Gerundive)
forms the same way as gerund, but has 1st/2nd declension endings
modifies and agrees with a noun in gender, case, and number
basic translation: "(about) to be verbed"
Form: present stem (2nd principal part -re) + ndus, nda, ndum
**3rd io and 4th conj use 1st princ part -o as stem, then add endus, enda, endum
e.g. laborō, labōrāre ingredior, ingredī, ingressus sum
labora + ndus = laborandus ingredi + endus = ingrediendus
Uses
use the basic translation of the participle
Simple Participle
Passive Periphrastic
Special Case Uses
e.g. Labor faciendus difficilis est.

Sciō vōs fābulam legendam amātūram esse.
always seen with a form of "sum, esse"
agrees with the subject in gender, case, number
the agent will be in the **Dative** case
translate as "must be verbed" or "had to be verbed" or "will have to be verbed" depending on tense of "sum"
e.g. Mox labor tuus fīniendus est.

Haec verba vōbīs discenda sunt.
gerundive is translated actively
word modified is object of gerundive
otherwise the same as gerund case uses (same indicators, translation)
e.g. Latīnam linguam causā aliārum linguārum intellegendārum discō.

Cubiculum tacitum idoneum multīs librīs legendīs est.
Form: ducō, ducere, duxī, ductus audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus
ductus auditus
e.g. Puerum relictum petimus.

Dux victus ā proeliō fugit.
Independent Clauses
Active: present stem + ba + active personal endings
e.g. porto, portare audio, audire
porta + ba + m = portabam audi + e + ba + m = audiebam
Passive: present stem + ba + passive personal endings
e.g. tempto, temptare capio, capere
tempta + ba + r = temptabar capi + e + ba + r = capiebar
Active: present stem + future tense sign + active personal endings.
e.g. clamo, clamare fugio, fugere
clama + b + o = clamabo fugi + a + m = fugiam
Passive: present stem + future tense sign + passive personal endings
e.g. laboro, laborare iacio, iacere
labora + b + or = laborabor iaci + a + r = iaciar
Infinitives
noun + participle, noun + adjective, or noun + noun in ablative
literal translation: "with the noun verbing/having been verbed"
can use relative or adverbial translations
Ablative Absolute
always 1st person, usually plural
always present subjunctive
negative expressed with "ne"
translation: "let me/us __________"
Hortatory
always 2nd or 3rd person
negative expressed with "ne"
translation depends on tense
Jussive
Utinam: "Would that . . ."
Velim: "I wish that . . ."
negative expressed with "ne"
Optative
always is a question
translation based on "should I do this or that?"
negative expressed with "non"
Deliberative Question
e.g. Latinam linguam legamus.

Putem.
Present shows potential future action
translation: "you should/may verb" or "let him/them verb"
e.g. Domum eas.
Imperfect shows contrary-to-fact present action
translation: "you should be verbing" or "he/they should be verbing"
e.g. Ne domum ires.
Pluperfect shows contrary-to-fact past action
translation "you should have verbed" or "he/they should have verbed"
e.g. Ne domum ivissetis.
Present expresses potential future action
translation: "Would that/I wish that we may verb"
e.g. Utinam nostri milites vincant!
Imperfect expresses contrary to fact present action
translation: "Would that/I wish that he were verbing"
e.g. Velim domum iremus.
Pluperfect exresses contrary-to-fact past action
translation: "Would that/I wish that they had verbed"
e.g. Utinam domum ivissem.
Present expresses future potential action
translation: "should we verb?"
e.g. Librum legam aut foras ludam?
Imperfect expresses contrary-to-fact present action
translation: "should he be verbing?"
e.g. Audiretis aut loqueremini?
Pluperfect expresses contrary-to-fact past action
translation: "should you have verbed?"
e.g. Hic mansissent aut domum ivissent?
Active: perfect active stem + perfect active endings
e.g. porto, portare, portavi, portatus duco, ducere, duxi, ductus
portav + isti = portavisti dux + istis = duxistis
Passive: perfect passive stem + present tense of "sum"
e.g. tempto, temptare, temptavi, temptatus facio, facere, feci, factus
temptatus + est = temptatus est factus + sumus = **facti sumus
**Notice that the perfect passive participle must agree with the subject
in gender, case, and number
Active: perfect active stem + imperfect of "sum"
e.g. sum, esse, fui, futurus audio, audire, audivi, auditus
fu + eram = fueram audiv + eratis = audiveratis
Passive: perfect passive stem + imperfect of "sum"
e.g. capio, capere, cepi, captus clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatus
captus + eram = captus eram clamatus + erant = **clamati erant
**Remember that the perfect passive participle must agree with the subject
in gender, case, and number
Active: perfect active stem + future tense of "sum"
e.g. fugio, fugere, fugi, fugiturus iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus
fug + erimus = fugerimus iec + **erint = iecerint
**Remember that the 3rd plural ending is "erint"
Passive: perfect passive stem + future tense of "sum"
e.g. comparo, comparare, comparavi, comparatus fero, ferre, tuli, latus
comparatus + erit = comparatus erit latus + erunt = **lati erunt
**Remember that the perfect passive participle must agree with the subject
in gender, case, and number
2nd principal part of non-deponent verbs
translation: "to verb"
Present Active
2nd principal part of deponent verbs
translation: "to be verbed"
Present Passive
perfect active stem (3rd principal part -i)
translation: "to have verbed"
Perfect Active
perfect passive participle (4th principle part)
translation: "to have been verbed"
Perfect Passive
Uses
future active participle
translation: "to be about to verb"
Future Active
e.g. porto, portare fugio, fugere
portare fugere
For 1st, 2nd, and 4th conj. take off "e" of present infinitive and add long -i
For 3rd conj. take off entire infinitive ending (ere)
and add long -i
e.g. clamo, clamare moneo, monere
clamar + i = clamari moner + i = moneri
e.g. capio, capere duco, ducere
cap + i = capi duc + i = duci
infinitive acts as the subject
usually seen with impersonal verbs like "licet" or "est" with a neuter complement (e.g. "necesse est")
Subjective
always has accusative subject of infinitive
seen with verbs of wanting, ordering
someone tells/wants someone else (acc. subject) to do something
Objective
never has accusative subject of infinitive
completes the sense of verbs like posse, amare, velle/nolle, etc.
Complementary
seen with a verb of feeling, thinking, knowing, hoping, saying, believing, etc.
always has accusative subject of infinitive
reports what is felt, thought, known, etc.
Indirect Statement
e.g. Studere est bonum.

Foras vobis ludere non licet.
e.g. Aurelia ancillas cibum parare iubet.

Te laborem finire volo.
e.g. Cornelia Romam ire non vult.

Sextus arbores ascendere amat.
e.g. Puer sperat se non esse tardum.

Cornelius scit senatum hodie convenire.
use present active infinitive as base
translation: "verb!"
Active
translation: "be verbed!"
Passive
Form: perfect active stem + isse
e.g. audio, audire, audivi, auditus duco, ducere, duxi, ductus
audiv + isse = audivisse dux + isse = duxisse
Form: perfect passive participle + esse (separate word)
e.g. porto, portare, portavi, portatus facio, facere, feci, factus
portatus + esse = portatus esse factus + esse = factus esse
Form: future active participle + esse (separate word)
e.g. clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatus punio, punire, punivi, punitus
clamaturus + esse = clamaturus esse puniturus + esse = puniturus esse
Form: present stem + ns, ntis, nti, ntem . . . (3rd decl. endings)
e.g. portō, portāre iaciō, iacere
porta + ns = portāns ** iaci + ens = iaciēns
**Notice that 3rd -io and 4th conj. verbs use the 1st princ. part -o and add "ens, entis . . ." as the ending
Form: perfect passive participle -us + ūrus
e.g. moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus experior, experīrī, expertus sum
monit + ūrus = monitūrus expert + ūrus = expertūrus
e.g. Cicerone et Antonio consulibus, Catilina rem publicam delere voluit.

Pompeio victo, Caesar Romam rediit.
Singular Form: present active infinitive -re
e.g. habeo, habere audio, audire
habe audi
Plural Form: present active infinitive -re + te
e.g. porto, portare sum, esse
porta + te = portate es + te = este
duco, dico, facio, and ferre have the following imperative forms
Four Special Verbs
Singular: dic, duc, fac, fer
Plural: dicite, ducite, facite, ferte
Singular Form: present active infinitive
e.g. conor, conari, conatus sum sequor, sequi, secutus sum
conare sequere
Plural Form: 2nd plural present passive indicative
e.g. porto, portare ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum
portamini ingredimini
Stems
Stem A
(1st and 2nd conjugation)
2nd principal part -re

Stem B
(3rd and 4th conjugation)
1st principal part -o**
Active
Present (Indicative)
Present stem is used for the present, imperfect, and future indicative tenses.
**Add long "e" to stem of imperfect tense
Perfect (Indicative and Subjunctive)
Active: 3rd p.p. -i**

Passive: PPP


**The 3rd p.p. of (semi-)deponent verbs is already passive, so they do not use this stem
With Prepositions
dē, prō, sine, cum
Translate preposition + "verbing"
e.g. Catullus dē vīvendō scrībit
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