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Lesson Preparation & Building Background

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Danielle Guida

on 29 September 2015

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Transcript of Lesson Preparation & Building Background

Lesson Preparation
Proper lesson planning is critical for teacher and student success.
Lessons must:
target specific learning goals
enable students to make connections between their background knowledge and new information
allow students to practice applying new information
assess student learning to determine their comprehension
Lesson should not be negatively biased against ELLs and should contain age-appropriate content.
6 important aspects of the SIOP model for lesson preparation:
Content Objectives
Language Objectives
Appropriate Content Concepts
Supplementary Materials
Adaption of Content
Meaningful Activities
Content Objectives
Since ESL teachers sometimes need assistance with creating their objectives, they should collaborate closely with one another as they plan lessons and teach their students.
Overall, objectives need to be written in terms of what ELLs will learn or do, simply stated both orally and written, and tied to specific age-appropriate standards.
Each content objective needs explicit attention so students know what they are supposed to be learning.
Language Objectives
Additional to content objectives, language objectives are needed to support student academic language development.
Social language skills may need to be developed.
The same principles for the content objectives apply to the language objectives.
Also, objectives should represent an unlearned aspect of academic English.
An effective teacher needs to know how language is incorporated in all content areas.
Teachers need to know the level of proficiency of each student as well in order to find an appropriate level for teaching.
A few solid starting points for generating language objectives are: academic vocabulary, language skills and functions, language structure or grammar, and language learning strategies.
Language Objectives
Should...
Range from process-oriented to performance-oriented
Distinguish between receptive and productive language skills
Incorporate oral language practice in informal and formal settings
Help pin point students who need to move on to more advanced levels of English
Allow for lots of exposure for students to use academic language
Teachers should review the objectives with the class to ensure their level of knowledge. Those who had trouble, should be given additional help by incorporating group and partner activities into lessons.
It's also a good idea to pair up with a fellow ESL or bilingual teacher to go over their knowledge of ELLs' academic language needs.

Content Objectives
Should...
Identify what students should know and be able to do
Support local or state content standards
Be taught within one or two lessons
Allow for material to be age-appropriate
Be in terms of student learning
Students will be able to...
Students will...
Today I will...
The learner will...
Our job is to...
Limit of one or two per lesson
Share with students orally and in writing
Review them at the end of each lesson to ensure understanding
Lesson Preparation & Building Background For English Language Learners: Using the SIOP Model
Appropriate Content Concepts
Teachers should acknowledge the curriculum guidelines and grade-level standards for their content concepts.
While planning you must consider:
First language literacy
English language proficiency
Schooling background and academic preparation for grade-level work
Background knowledge of the content
Cultural and age appropriateness of instructional materials
Difficulty level of what's being read
Appropriate Content Concepts
Generally, it is not appropriate to use curriculum materials and books from much earlier grades. The teacher should provide scaffolding for materials that are found if necessary.
Students with major gaps in their education may be placed in programs that use content from earlier grades in order to provide the proper fundamentals to catch up with their class.
Illustrations and demonstrations help older students recall concepts they may have already learned. From there the teacher can help them with their English vocabulary of the concept and add to their knowledge of it.
Help students make connections to the content by reflecting on their background knowledge.
For additional help, a small group of students can be pulled for a minilesson with the teacher.
Supplementary Materials
Supplementary materials enhance meaning and clarify confusing concepts since pencil-and-paper activities may be centered on difficult text.
Students have different learning styles. These materials allow for them to be covered by involving the senses and the opportunity for participation and creation which can lead to connection and personal meanings.
Technology and multimedia can enhance understanding and engagement in practice.
Supplementary Materials
Hands-on Manipulatives:
physically reduce language load in activities.
Realia:
real-life objects that connect to student lives.
Pictures and Visuals:
models, graphs, maps, props, timelines, charts, and bulletin board displays. A powerpoint is helpful for visual students.
Multimedia:
tape recordings, videos, DVDs, interactive CD-ROMs, and unlimited internet resources.
Demonstrations:
provide visual support and model how to use materials/follow directions for an activity.
Related Literature:
wide variety of fiction and nonfiction texts on key topics in the classroom promotes independent reading among students.
Hi-lo Readers and Thematic Sets:
high interest but lower readability levels which include visuals and a glossary for different content topics.
Chapter Summaries:
overview of key ideas to introduce or review, may be available in their language.
Adapted Text:
text that is adapted to reduce reading level demands, definitions are provided.
Adaptation of Content
Often times a teacher will be given a text that is too complicated for all of their students to understand.
Instead of working to adapt the content in the book, teachers will usually "water down" the content until everyone can understand.
Finding ways to make sure that content is left in tact for all students is of utmost importance.
Forms of Adaptation
Summarizing the text to focus on key points- this is a helpful approach because it can help students with things such as learning key historical events or steps to doing a math problem.
Elaborating the text to add information- this could make a text longer than it originally was, but the person adapting the text can add definitions to more difficult words to help with background info.
Meaningful Activities
All lesson activities should be planned to promote language development skills.
Students are more successful when they are given the opportunity to mix things they already know along with new things they are learning.
Meaningful Activities
When classroom experiences are made to mimic the real lives of students they are more authentic and produce better learning because the students view it as more meaningful to each student personally.
Authentic experiences are important for ELLs because they are in the process of attaching labels to items that are already familiar to them.
Building Background
Links between Past Learning and New Learning
Developing Key Vocabulary
Studies show that a limited number of should be taught per week and/ or lesson
The following link is a SIOP Model approach to teaching and building a vocabulary: https://graniteschools.instructure.com/courses/764048/pages/vocabulary-building
Concepts Linked to Students' Backgrounds
Through extensive research it has been shown that students with a better knowledge of the world or "schemata" have a better understanding and learning abilities.
Teaching students background information and key vocabulary is extremely important for increasing comprehension.
Word Parts: Roots and Affixes
Word parts help students learn new vocabulary based on English morphology
By the sixth grade a student has acquired up to 1200 words that include roots and affixes
General Academic Vocabulary
Academic vocabulary includes language for reading and writing
Academic language
and/ or
academic English
are terms for academic vocabulary use
These are the words a student must obtain because academic words/ vocabulary are used throughout an entire academic career
Subject Specific Vocabulary
Subject specific vocabulary are key words and terms associated with topics being taught
I.E. Lesson on the Life Cycle of a Butterfly: Monarchs, prey, insect, larva, pupa
Specific words relating to key concepts

Subject Specific Vocabulary
It is most important for the student to learn and convey words
This way the student has the knowledge and understanding of particular words when given a topic and determining if a particular word can relate to the key concept of what is being taught
General Academic Vocabulary
Some of the vocabulary may contain words with multiple meanings
General academic vocabulary is used on a day to day basis
Socially
Academically
Contains cross-curriculum terms and language processes and functions
Word Parts: Roots and Affixes
Many English words are formed with roots that are attached to prefixes and suffixes
The words are related by structure and meaning
Developing Background Knowledge
Chapter previews and guides are helpful to build a framework for students to use to recall information.
The use of visual aids is extremely important when working with ELL students because they provide context for the student, helping with comprehension.
Links Between New and Old Information
During a lesson the teacher could use something such as, "Who remembers three reasons for ___"
Asking students how something new relates to something they have already learned is also a good strategy for linking old and new concepts.
Developing Key Vocabulary
Critical for English Language Learners
Related to academic achievement
Having knowledge in vocabulary helps with comprehension
Having a wide range of vocabulary knowledge helps with mastery of reading performance
Resources
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2013). Lesson preparation. In A. M. Ramos (Ed.), Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model (pp. 24-62). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2013). Building Background. In A. M. Ramos (Ed.), Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model (pp. 63-94). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
English learners are often disadvantaged because of their differentiated schooling.
ELLs, including both immigrants and born citizens of the U.S., may lack the academic language and vocabulary necessary for understanding content.
Some ELLs may have rich backgrounds and sufficient academic lanugage in their native language but can't connect it to the English concepts.
Effective teachers present information in a way that students can understand and connect to.
By incorporating students' backgrounds and experiences into lessons, students are able to make a personal connection to the information in order to comprehend.
By incorporating graphic organizers and charts into lessons, students can connect previous knowledge to the information being taught.
This website offers many links with organizers/charts: https://graniteschools.instructure.com/courses/764048/pages/charts-kwl-slash-graphic-organizers-page


Helpful Websites for ELLs
http://www.starfall.com

http://www.eslkidstuff.com

http://www.esldesk.com/reading/esl-reader

http://www.learningchocolate.com

https://www.visualthesaurus.com

This video shows a teacher using digital cameras to teach vocabulary
This video shows a teacher emphasizing her objectives.
This video shows jigsaw text reading.
By, Danielle Guida, Miranda Music, & Macey Resmondo
Making connections between information that has already been learned and new information is important so that students will not forget older information.
Research shows the importance of making connections between old information and new information to help students retain and continue to learn new concepts.
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