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Transcript of Kagan Structures
*Engages each student.
*A structure is the "how" of the instruction.
*The content is the "what" of the instruction. Born March 8, 1944
B.S. 1965 from University of California, Berkeley
M.A. 1970, Ph.D. 1973 from University of California, Los Angeles
Author of over 100 books, chapters, and scientific journal articles
Former clinical psychologist and full professor of psychology and education
Author of Cooperative Learning
Developed the concept of structures Dr. Spencer Kagan Created by
Melissa M Howard To fulfill requirements for
TEEL 340 VA: The Effective Classroom
Fort Hays State University February 2013 Dr. Spencer Kagan began doing research in 1968. Through his research he found that he could change whether the children felt cooperative or competitive with each other. By applying his findings to education he helped pioneer cooperative learning. Based on his research he developed the concept of structures, a way of engaging the students and delivering the curriculum, making cooperative learning easy. Whole-Class Question-Answer In cooperative learning students work together in small groups on a structured activity. The focus is on all students being actively engaged in the learning process. Through small groups students:
*Develop interpersonal skills
*Learn to deal with conflict
*Increase understanding of subject matter Why consider Cooperative Learning? 3 Basic Principles 1. Teacher asks a question
2. Students who wish to answer raise their hand
3. Teacher calls on one student
4. Student attempts to state correct answer (other students hope they get it wrong so they can get a chance to answer)
5. Teacher responds to the student What is happening in most typical classrooms.
NOT COOPERATIVE LEARNING What is it and why should we consider it? Only one student at a time can be engaged with the teacher, reducing the amount of active learning time. We need to find a way to better prepare our students for the future workplace, which increasingly consists of employees working in teams, with communication being a key component. When a child reaches graduation they have approximately 15,000 hours of classroom time and about 18,000 hours of television viewing time. This is creating a socialization void and antisocial behavior. Cooperative learning works to increase socialization skills. Most of the information our students will need to deal with in the 21st century has not yet been generated. Therefore, having them memorize facts that will be outdated by the time they reach the workforce will be of little importance. Classrooms are seeing an increase in racial diversity. Cooperative learning can help with race relations and lead to a better functioning individual in our democratic society. We need to be teaching them how to understand, analyze, organize, apply and evaluate new information. 1. Simultaneous Interaction
2. Positive Interdependence
3. Individual Accountability Review Structure + Content = Activity Six categories of structures 1. Teambuilding
3. Communication Building
4. Information Exchange
6. Thinking Skills Within each category there are numerous structures to choose from. Dr. Spencer Kagan developed Kagan structures based on his research and work in Cooperative Learning. According to Kagan, "A Kagan Structure is a content-free, repeatable sequence of steps designed to structure the interaction of students with each other and/or the curriculum in ways which align with basic principles and efficiently realize specific learning outcomes." PIES Principles From the student's perspective Advantages Disadvantages Advantages and Disadvantages of using Kagan Structures P=Positive Interdependence
S=Simultaneous Interaction *Each Kagan Structure engages in each of the four principles. *Class time is more engaging.
*Students get to do what they want to do which is interact with their peers.
*Material is easier to learn since they are actively involved in the lesson. "Unlike other approaches to implementing cooperative learning, the Kagan Structures are not lesson based; once learned, they require little or no planning, preparation, special materials, or lesson design."
-Dr. Spencer Kagan While Kagan Structures seem idealistic, there are pitfalls that educators will need to be careful to avoid and plan for. Competition may begin between teams. Those teams that deem themselves "lower" may stop trying. Students that lack social skills will not know how to work in groups, resulting in conflicts within groups. Parents may perceive Kagan Structures as a way to use the high achieving students to teach the lower achieving students, taking away from their education and chance to advance. Some students may become dependent on group work and not feel comfortable working alone. Teachers that rely on group grades can cause stress for those that are doing majority of work. Learning to manage a classroom that uses Kagan Structures takes time and patience. Teachers need to be careful that a team does not go off task. Consistently, school-based research studies in multiple grade levels have shown the positive effects of using Kagan Structures. Increased Social Skills and Responsibility Increased Academic Achievement Easy to Implement Real-Life Transfer Learner Centered Students report that they are more interested in school and have more fun learning. Engaging Students learn through multiple learning styles. Kagan Structures engage in a variety of learning styles and intelligences, so all students can be actively learning. Leadership skills, teamwork skills, conflict resolution skills, listening skills, and the ability to express a point of view. These are all skills needed in the modern work place and they are all practiced through Kagan Structures. Teachers do not need to prepare complex lessons to engage different learning styles. They simply need to pick a couple of Kagan Structures and use with the content they are teaching. Research shows that gains are shown across all content areas, all grade levels and among all types of students. Because Kagan Structures focus on working in teams, students show an increase in:
*Conflict resolution skills
*Increased initiative Sample Kagan Structures 1. Teacher divides students into groups of 4.
2. Teachers has students number off within groups from 1-4.
3. The teacher gives the directive to the groups. "Be sure everyone on the team can..."
4. Students put heads together and make sure everyone on team knows information.
5. The teacher calls a number (1-4) and only the students with that number can answer. 1. Teacher gives directive of what she wants students to discuss or share.
2. Students stand up with hand up in air and partner up.
3. Once done sharing, the pair break up and put their hand up in the air and find a new partner.
4. This continues until the teacher gives directive that time is up. Article retrieved from http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/cooperative_learning/kagan/
Cafedurhamcollege. (2010, December 3). Think-Pair-Share. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGCyk_QaC0I&list=WLsI3c_jNoCkNWiDRx2KRaCqedJyuaFW9C
educaresg. (2010, July 26). Kagan Spencer Interview Part 1. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PozM72-Rvpg&list=HL1361461387.
drpratt. (2007, July 16). Cooperative Learning. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEh8Z0sbiRE&list=WLsI3c_jNoCkNWiDRx2KRaCqedJyuaFW9C&feature=mh_lolz
Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative Learning. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Kagan Cooperative Learning.
Kagan, S. (Fall 2000). Kagan Structures – Not One More Program, a Better Way to Teach Any Program. Kagan Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/research_and_rationale/274/Kagan-Structures-Not-One-More-Program-a-Better-Way-to-Teach-Any-Program.
Kagan, S. (Winter 2003). Kagan Structures: Research and Rationale in a Nutshell. Kagan Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/research_and_rationale/283/Kagan-Structures-Research-and-Rationale-in-a-Nutshell.
Kagan, S. (Fall 2005). Rethinking Thinking – Does Bloom’s Taxonomy Align with Brain Science? Kagan Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/dr_spencer_kagan/ASK29.php
Kaganvideo. (2009, September 23). Kagan Cooperative Learning Structures for Success Part 3. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1no94y6wLNU. References Building teams within the classroom. Managing a classroom of teams. Create a Will to Cooperate Development of Social Skills Key Concepts to Implementing *Students need easy and equal access to teammates.
*Teacher needs to establish a quiet signal.
*Extensive use of modeling is used. There are many ways to build teams, but the most common is the heterogeneous team, mirroring the dynamics of the classroom. Students learn to want to cooperate through teambuilding, classbuilding, and reward structures. Some students will enter the classroom with few if any social skills. These can be taught through: modeling, defining, role-playing, observing, reinforcing and practicing. Some Kagan Structures have social skills built into them.