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Digestive system

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by

Katelyn Edwards

on 7 June 2014

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Transcript of Digestive system

Include a labeled diagram of your body system and locate where it is in the body.
Digestive system
Flow chart
Discuss the key roles of the digestive system and explain how it helps the human body function.
If the digestive system stops working, the food that you eat, will not be digested and if so, the nutrients will not be absorbed through the blood stream and it will not reach to the cells. If cells of the body do not get nutrients, it will not be able to regulate the growth and metabolism to gain energy. The person will lose the energy as well as the weight. If the food inside your body doesn't digest then it would produce toxins if inside for long time, which can make the blood toxic and generate many types of diseases.
So you would die if the digestive system stopped working.
If our body doesn't Have proper nutrition then we can't survive. When you eat a balanced diet, your body has the fuel and nutrients it needs to accomplish various tasks in the human body. We need minerals so our bones can grow and keep our heartbeat going. Some minerals can be iron, sodium and calcium.
We also need water because without it we can't flush out toxins, transport nutrients to cells and do other things in the human body. Protein is in food, and we need protein to help build and repair bones, skin and muscles. We need vitamins to help with digestion and nerve function. Some vitamins we need are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the eight types of B vitamins.

What would happen if the digestive system would no longer work?
An animal cell is similar to a clear balloon filled with water or thin jelly, with tiny parts inside of it. These smaller parts are known as organelles, these cells can usually only been seen with a microscope. each organelle has a special function, such as;
Nucleus:
This controls the center of the cell, it controls all the chemical reactions in the cell and how the cell reproduces and develops.
cell membrane:
This is the skin that holds the cell together. This controls what comes in and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm
: A jelly like mixture that contains lots of smaller parts where the work of the cell takes place.
Vacuole:
This contains wastes or chemicals that are being moved around the cell.
5. Describe the differences between plant and animal cells. (Talk about organelles and the particular roles of different organelle.)
Single celled organism
6. Discuss the similarities and differences between a single celled organism and a multi-celled organism
Because single celled organisms have metabolism. Metabolism is when a chemical process occurs within a living thing in order for it to maintain life.
Multicellular organisms need organs to survive because they are so large and more blood and food needs to go around the body.
There is a thicker layer of tissue around multicellular organisms, therefor more blood must be produced to travel around the body. Single celled organisms don't have as much tissue so less blood and food needs to travel around it.
Discuss how single celled organisms are able to survive without body systems, whilst multicellular organisms (humans) require several different body systems to survive.
Digestive system n.d., N.d edn, One note, N.d, accessed 29 May 2014, <year 8 biological science>.

The George Mateljan Foundation, All Rights Reserved, 2014 Where does the digestion of food occurr?, N.d, N.d, accessed 29 May 2014, <http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=dailytip&dbid=121>.

N.d, N 2006, Function of the digestive system, Clinaero, accessed 5 June 2014, <http://digestive-system.emedtv.com/digestive-system/function-of-the-digestive-system.html>.

N.d, N 2006, Common health problems after an organ transplant, Acredited health website, accessed 7 June 2014, <http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/life-after-transplant-common-health-problems>.

N.d, N 2014, Organ and tissue donation, State government of victoria, accessed 7 June 2014, <http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Organ_and_tissue

N.d, N 2011, Specialized Cells of the digestive system, N.d, accessed 7 June 2014, <http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/erg/gicells.htm#ito>.
Bibliography
Pancreas
thin body tissue
Beta cells
Beta cells are cells that make insulin, a hormone that controls the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood.
Q. 1
Q.2
By Katelyn Edwards
Digestion is a physical breakdown of large lumps of food breaking down into smaller ones. The chemical breakdown occurs with the help of a substance called enzymes. Enzymes is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction. Enzymes is found in saliva when the food is breaking down in the mouth. The food then travels to the stomach where it churns and mixes the food. Proteins begin to get digested and hydrochloric acid is released from the stomach wall and kills bacteria. Food can be stored in the stomach for up to 4 hours. The food turns into mush and is sent into the small intestine. Proteins and carbohydrates are finally digested into smaller particles (fats can also be digested). Soluble food passes out of the small intestine and into the blood. Some minerals and water pass into the blood from the large intestines. The remaining insoluble food becomes waste and passes out through the anus.
parts of other organ systems also have a major role in the digestive system. When we eat things like fruit, vegetables and breads, they need to be broken down so the body can use them. When they are broken down, the nutrients can absorb into the blood and carry to the cells throughout the body.
Digestive system diagram from year 8 science E-book.
Q.3
Part 1: Human Body systems
~Digestive system~
Q.4
Describe how the structure of the various cell types within digestive system would affect their function.
Part 2: Discussion Questions – Unicellular vs. multicellular organisms
Q.5
A plant cell has the same things in an animal cell except for a few extra parts. Plant cells have a cell membrane, a nucleus and a cytoplasm, and they have a vacuole but it is much larger than in an animal cell. To support the plant and give it shape, it has a cell wall outside the cell membrane. They also have organelles called chloroplasts, that are green because it contains the pigment "chlorophyll".
Q.6
Multi-celled organism
a) Simple body construction

b) All functions controlled by single cell

c) made up of one cell

d) A microscope is needed in order to see a single cell organism

a) complex structure
Both
b) made of many cells
c) all the cells work and function together to make a living organism

d) many layers
a) Plant

b) animal

c) eat

d) get rid of wastes

e) reproduce
Q.7
Part 3: Discussion Questions - Science/medical technological advancements
If your chosen body system were to fail what is one medical idea/application/product/invention that is available to help your body function? Discuss its development/refinement over time.
Q.8
Some problems of the digestive system may include;
Colitis
– inflammation of the bowel
Diverticulitis
– inflammation of pouches lining the small intestine
Gastroenteritis
– an infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea
Heartburn
– when the contents of the stomach back up into the oesophagus
Ulcer
– a hole in the mucous membrane lining the stomach or duodenum.

Solutions:
For some diseases and illnesses, there aren't necessarily any solutions but some therapies can help reduce the pain and symptoms.
For heart burn some medicines/ tablets can help reduce pain and help get rid of the acid reflux that causes the burning feeling in the upper stomach.
For gastroenteritis you must make sure to drink lots of fluids, try to eat like you do everyday but a bit more slowly. You can buy medicines that help reduce the amount of trips that you take to the toilet.
Stomach ulcers can't be cured straight away but once again medication can be used to relieve the pain. The most popular brands for the medication is Tums, Maalox, and Mylanta (surgery can also be performed if the ulcer is severe)
9. Evaluate multiple ideas, applications, products, and/or inventions that have been developed in response to your chosen body system not functioning correctly. Suggest situations in which each solution may be most appropriate.
The majority of the time, most people have only small symptoms that only require small treatment such as tablets and different medicines. When the illness is dramatically severe surgery must be conducted.
Self evaluation
What skills did you learn when you conducted this investigation?
If the illness can be picked up quickly the symptoms can be treated fast. But some of the time the illness can be left for too long or it could be too severe to treat. When something has been left for too long surgery may have to be performed.
Colitis, Diverticulitis, Gastroenteritis, Heartburn and Ulcer's can all be treated quickly with antibiotics or medicine. But if the case is very severe it may need surgery, which can take 1 week to 1 month to heal.
10. Consider how advances in technology, combined with scientific understanding of the functioning of body systems, has enabled medical science to replace or repair organs. Discuss ethical issues that arise from these technological advances (e.g. organ transplantation)
Organ tissue donation is a life saving/ transporting medical process. You can still donate after death. Basically anything from the digestive system can be donated to someone who desperately needs it. Although we need a lot of our digestive organs we can still donate them after we die. One of the downsides is that it is very expensive and sometimes the surgery may not work.
Common health issues may arise after an organ transplant such as; Diabetes, High cholesterol (can clog up blood vessels), High blood pressure, Anxiety and depression ( people that have received a transplant would have usually gone through a lot of nerve racking experiences).
The effect on organ transplantation can save lives but on the other hand their life can change and be given other health problems.
Q.9
Q.10
Types of cells
Stomach
Stem cells: They help replace cells when they die, they are located at the top of the glands. These cells help replenish surface mucous cells that protect the stomach surface. They also replace absorptive cells and goblet cells once every 4 days.
Liver
Gastric Surface Mucous Cells: These cells resist the attack by digestive acid and enzymes. surface mucous cells have a different appearance to mucous cells, they differ in shape.
Intestine
Goblet cells: Goblet cells are scattered among the small intestine. The end of each goblet cell is occupied by a large mass of mucus. These cells increase along the entire bottom of the bowel.
Liver
Kupffer cells: These cells are very significant. Their responsibility is to clean out the bacteria from the blood stream. They also help remove worn out red blood cells.
If kupffer cells were replaced with goblet cells then our blood would be infected and not be cleaned. We would probably die of blood poisoning. Kupffer cells and goblet cells have their own jobs and if they were switched then our digestive system would stop working. Kupffer cells have the job to eliminate bacteria from the blood stream.

If cells were swapped to different organs then our digestive system and body would be a deteriorating chaos. There would be no cells to eliminate bacteria, there would be no cells to protect our stomach and help digest food. We would get infected and die, that's why cell types do matter as to where they are in the body.
I didn't learn any specific skills but I did learn new information. I learnt many different cell type in the digestive system and what their job is. I learnt the even more differences between multicelluar organism and single cell organisms.
I also learnt that it takes about 20-24 hours for the digestive system to complete a full rotation. I learnt the jobs and the differences between the small and large instestine.
5. Explain how you obtained feedback on the quality of your work in this project and how you used that feedback.
I asked my parents to read through the information and I then asked if they understood and if they learnt anything. Their feedback was that they learnt several new things about the digestive system and the differences between different cells. They told me that I must expand on several ideas, so I did. I expanded on question 4, so the reader could understand some of the functions of different types of cells in the digestive system.
6. List 1-2 points for further ideas on how you would do this project differently if you were to repeat it and any goals you would have.
I would have made the layout a bit neater and more organized. Because when looking at the entire prezi it looks a bit messy.
I also would have included more pictures to help explain what i was talking about.
Maybe next time I could put more effort into writing down more different cell types within the digestive system so I can learn more and so can the reader.
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