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South Korean Culture

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by

Samantha Wong

on 30 October 2014

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Transcript of South Korean Culture

Population
: As of April 2014, the total population is 51,202,130 people at about 513 people per km2
Holidays in Korea
Religions
Buddhism
Demographics
south Korean culture
Important cities
Seoul
Busan
Gwang-An Bridge
Government
: President is Park Geun Hye. Government divided into executive, judicial, and legislative branches. Executive and judicial branches operate mostly at the national level but can also carry out local functions.
Language
: Korean language or Hangugeo is the official language of South Korea. Even though the korean language is mostly used, English is taught in primary, middle, and high schools

Trot:
The oldest form of Korean pop music. It was developed in the early 1900s.

Rock
: Spread to Korea from the United States Army after the Korean War. Shin Jung Hyeon, who is sometimes referred to as the ‘Godfather of Korean Rock’, played rock covers for American servicemen in the 1950s
Folk:
It developed in the 1960s and 70s. It was heavily influenced by American folk music. Musicians like Hahn Dae Soo and Kim Min Ki wrote politically and socially conscious songs causing their music to be censored by the government.
Music Cont.
Hip-hop
: Gained popularity in the mid-90s after the success of a band, Seo Taiji and the Boys. In 2004, a singer, Rain, released his album “It’s Raining”. He was the first Korean international star.


Idol groups
: The dominant trend in Korean music is “idol groups”. These groups feature same-sex entertainers who perform dance, hip-hop, and electronic music influenced songs.
Incheon
Daegu
Daejeon
Gwangju
10.2 million
3.5 million
2.8 million
2.5 million
1.5 million
1.5 million
Literature
- Korean literature is made up of oral literature and written literature
- written language is either in classical chinese or korean script (hangul)
- Korean literature is broken up into the following periods:

-Three Kingdoms (57 BCE–667 CE)
- The earliest surviving piece is written in Korean text is dated back to the 6th century. They were ancient songs that were found in Chinese histories.

-Unified Shilla (667–918 CE)
-Hanshi
, poetry composed in classical Chinese, but written by Koreans
-rich oral tradition consisting of lyric folk songs, shaman chants, myths, legends, and folktales

- Koryo (918–1392)
Poetry was popular, but writing in prose was also starting to become popular

- Early Choson (1392–1592);
first example of Korean fiction: Kumo shinhwa

- Later Choson (1592–1910);
-more writing by commoners and women
hangul- becomes really popular

- Modern (1910–present).

Popular tourist attraction
Aka Diamond Bridge
You can look at the view of mountains, sandy beaches, hills and city lights.
Seopjikoji, Jeju Island
Beautiful scenery and a lot of different things to do.
Several Korean dramas and films have been filmed here.

Uleung Island Seaside Road
Seoraksan


Gyeongbokgung Palace
- Built in 1395
- First royal palace built by the Joseon Dynasty
- National Museum of Korea and the National Folk Museum are located on the grounds
N Seoul Tower
The N stands for Namsan, New and Nature.
Also famous for its "Locks of Love"
Heunginjimun
-Aka Dongdaemun
-Part of the fortress wall of Seoul
-one of the The Eight Gates of Seoul
Bukhansan National Park
-Just outside of Seoul
-Lots of hiking trails
Insadong
- Place for Tourists
- Teahouses and restaurants
- Mountains for hiking
- National park
-Nicknamed the “mysterious island”
-Popular weekend getaway

Values and Beliefs
- Marriage customs have changes
- Traditionally, marriage was arranged. Now people get to decide who they marry
-Bowing is equivalent to the handshake in Korean culture
- Now people also shake hands after bowing (influence from western culture
Confucianism
Protestantism

- Western culture has changed the values and beliefs
- Respecting the elderly
- Traditionally, family life is was very important and the center of social life.
- Beliefs differ between the different religions
Honggildongjeon
Tales of Hong Gil-dong,
the first novel published in Hangul
Yongbieocheonga Verse
Location
Korea is mountainous, and only about 20 percent of the land in the south is flat enough for farming
Catholicism
History:

Before Korea was separated it was one country
In 1832 Korea was controlled by the Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty help the country politically
The Joseon Dynasty lasted until 1910, this was due to japan taking ownership of Korea after the war

Joseon Dynasty
The Japanese occupation of Korea ended


1948
A democratic government
A autocracy (Government only serving their leaders wishes, ignoring their peoples)


1945
North Korea being governed by the Soviet Union

South Korea governed by the United States

During the 1950’s, North and South Korea were at conflict, due to communism and government.
At this time, South Korea was helped and supported by the United Nations.
Once the war was ended, Korea was divided into 2 separate parts controlled by 2 different governments.

Different types of governments ran:
Unable to come to a decision on governments
Korea was divided into North Korea and South Korea
The Korean War
1910
Japan took control over Korea, using their military power - The Japanese occupation of Korea
Japan taking owner ship of Korea led to:
Cinemas
Radio
Increased amount of buildings
Urbanization
Art
Il Lee
His art ranging from a variety of different Ballpoint pen techniques and designs
Originally living in Seoul, South Korea, he began as a painter
He later then took his art to New York, where he continued ball point pen art and also began taking on new art challenges



Lee Bul


Sculpted in 1999
Was designed by having parts combined together that appeal to each other
The significance about this painting is the angles used for each part


Majestic Splendor
Sculpted in 1997
Was a fished embellished in sequences and other decorations
This led her to being discovered internationally enabling her to share her art with everyone


The Secret Sharer:
Amaryllis

inspiration: dog made with every material

each material taking part on the sculpture, represented a memory to her, that was spent with her dog

Process of creating took 20 years
Martial Arts:

Although martial arts came from roots of India, South Korea contributed much to the art






Kumdo

Despite the controversial relation between the japanese Kendo and the Korean Kumdo,
The Korean Kumdo is taught in a way where it preserves the art, and only contains minimal changes
Sword and Sword Art
Gender Role
Earlier women were discriminated by their gender. Mainly being known to cook and clean, women did not get the opportunity to have jobs and have an education. but once law stated for equal right, women progressively began changing their role.

Women:
Men:
Are considered as the head of the family, making decisions for the family and working to provide for his family

Children
Follow father’s (or mother’s) orders and respect the elders especially grandparents
*Eldest Son's wife must care for her husband's parent
Historical sites
Jongmyo:

also known as a royal shrine, was a shrine used to commemorate previous kings and queens.
found in several areas of Korea

Changdeokgung

was previously the home of a royal family

was created when the Joseon Dynasty still had power
This is the Second built palace
Many coronations were held in this palace
over the years, much of the palace was destroyed
but recently the people began fixing and restoring many areas of the building
1649: King Hyojong coronation
1659: King Hyeonjong coronation
1674: King Sukjong coronation
Gwanghallu-won

Years ago a love story was told, and was passed on to generation of families
This story was revolving around a boy and girl, who came from different class families and fell in love
this love story is a traditional story and is widely known by many.
The Story setting took place in Gwanghallu-won

Ethnicities
The ethnic group, Koreans, account for about 95% of the population.
440,000 people immigrated from China. However, about half of them are Koreans with Chinese citizenship.
117,000 residents are from the US excluding the American troops stationed in the country.
There are also immigrants from Vietnam, Philippines and more!
It was introduced to South Korea in
A.D. 372
(Goguryeo Kingdom) by a monk who came from the
Qian Qin Dynasty
in
China
Buddhism was
encouraged by the ruling people
of the Three Kingdoms because it supported the government, relating that Buddha, like the King, serves as a venerated(respected) symbol of authority
Beliefs of Buddhists:
There is personal salvation through rebirth, an endless cycle of reincarnation
Brought to Korea in the 17th century by Korean scholars from Beijing who had an interest in Catholicism, while studying Western Academic studies
Resulted in a lot of controversy, because conflicted with the beliefs of many Korean rulers
But, after the Korean war, the Korean Roman Catholic Church grew quickly as the number of missionaries and relief organizations increased
Protestant missionaries (Methodists) arrived in South Korea in 1884
Through the efforts of missionaries & churches, Christianity has grown rapidly in South Korea over the past century
- The majority of Christians in South Korea belong to Pentecostal Denominations
(including mainline churches such as Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist & Pentecostal churches.)
The Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul is the World's Largest Pentecostal Church
Even
Pope John Paul II
visited Seoul to attend the 44th International Eucharistic Congress in 1989, the bicentennial of the Roman Catholic Church in South Korea
Myeong-dong Cathedral, Seoul
The pop. of Catholics in South Korea has increased from 5% in 1985 to 11% in 2005
Christian organizations carried out socio-political programs actively and awakened social consciousness against superstitious practices and bad habits,
Cultural Do's and Don'ts
Do not...
choose a certain seat
leave food unfinished
hold glassware with one hand
Do...
have someone else introduce you to others
know chopstick etiquette
inform others about future attendance
bow
only 53.1% of the population is religious
Flag of South Korea
-Aka Taegukgi
-
Made up of 3 parts:
- White background= peace and purity
- Red and blue Taeguk (similar to yin and yang) = balance of the universe
- Four black trigrams (four elements )= movement and harmony
Heaven or sky
Moon or Water
Earth
Sun or Fire
This is a common philosophy in ancient Korea
More of a
moral code of conduct
, rather than a religion
a political/social system based on subordination - sons to fathers, wife to husband, people to rulers.
Influenced most of the Korean culture today as Confucian ideas remains strong

Link to the schools of thought:
Cultural relativism: -
its important to learn about new cultures and try to understand other cultures
- We see cultures through the lens of our culture and have misconceptions. By learning we can avoid this.

Cultural Materialism:
- South Korean culture has changed. Examples: Traditional values have changed and become more modern and language has evolved

Feminist Anthropology:
- Gender roles and the change in women roles.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_South_Korea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_South_Korea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_groups_in_Korea
http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Korea_South.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_South_Korea
Formality shows respect = better social relations.
http://eng.scourt.go.kr/eng/judiciary/introduction.jsp
Bibliography
http://www.korea.net/AboutKorea/Culture-and-the-Arts/Literature-and-Painting
Fulton, Bruce. (2002). Literature—Korea. In David Levinson & Karen Christensen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Modern Asia (Vol. 3, pp. 497-501). Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/gic/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=91b0ea88f2ef8a4076e442ac8b6e9f6d&prodId=GIC&userGroupName=thor40439&tabID=T001&docId=CX3403701764&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=EBKS&version=1.0
Bruce Fulton. Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, Vol. 3, 2002.
http://travel.cnn.com/seoul/visit/50-beautiful-places-visit-korea-873093
Music
Shin Jung Hyeon
Rain
INFINITE
F(x)
Painted in 1392–1910
Landscape painting
Painter: An Gyeon
This painting was styled as an Eight View Painting
*Eight View Painting: based on Poetry, compiling of beauty with a sad theme
Took a different approach on painting: using both Chinese and Korean art techniques
Evening Bell from Mist–Shrouded Temple and Autumn Moon over Lake Dongting and Autumn Moon over Lake Dongting


o “History of South Korea.” Mountain and Princeton University. Unknown. Uknown. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/History_of_South_Korea.html>
o “Heilbrunn Time of Art History.” Mountain and Water: Korean Landscape Painting, 1400-1800. Unknown. Unknown. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mowa/hd_mowa.htm>
o “Visit Seoul.”Seoul Metropolitan Government. Unknown. Uknown. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://www.visitseoul.net/en/article/article.do?_method=view&art_id=367&lang=en&m=0004003002002&p=03 >






o http://www.visitseoul.net/en/article/article.do?_method=list&m=0004003002002&p=en
o http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mowa/hd_mowa.htm
o https://sheg.stanford.edu/korean-war
o http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/History_of_South_Korea.html
o http://nwww.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20120205000072
o http://jikimi.cha.go.kr/english/world_heritage_new/culture_treasure_03.jsp?mc=EN_04_01
o http://eng.cdg.go.kr/info/info_history.htm
o http://www.worldguide.eu/wg/index.php?StoryID=525&ArticleID=24013&ArticleLang=1
o http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=gvjh
o http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Lee+Bul%3A+Museum+of+Contemporary+Art.-a0132555005
o http://www.artnet.com/artists/il-lee/biography
o http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Lee+Bul%3A+Museum+of+Contemporary+Art.-a0132555005
o http://www.ranker.com/list/famous-artists-from-south-korea/reference
o http://www.villagegallery.com/viewimages.asp?ID=476
o http://arttattler.com/archiveleebul.html
o http://jia.sipa.columbia.edu/online-articles/empowerment-women-south-korea/
o https://sites.google.com/site/genderrolesinsouthkorea/family-life
o http://www.visitseoul.net/en/article/article.do?_method=view&art_id=367&lang=en&m=0004003002002&p=03
o http://www.korea.net/AboutKorea/Korea-at-a-Glance/History
o https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/korean-war-2
o http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/essays/south-korea-japanese-occupation-the-korean-war-and-partition
o http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/kpct/kp_koreaimperialism.htm
I.e.
Koreans tend to be formal when dealing with non-family members.
- It's rude to address strangers by their first name
- "Mr." and "Ms." are used, even to co workers
- Men should always dressed formally for all occasions outside the home and other than vacation

Ceremonies
Buddhism:
Confucianism:
Buddha's Birthday (Seokga tansinil)
8th day of 4th lunar month
Lotus lanterns cover the entire temple
Temples provide free meals and tea
Jongmyo Jerye,
the royal ancestral service at Jongmyo Shrine

Seokjeon Daeje,
the worship rites at the Seonggyungwan in honor of Confucius, his disciples, and other celebrated Chinese and Korean Confucian scholars.
Korean New Year (Sulnal)
http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/AK/AK_EN_1_4_8.jsp
http://www.korea.net/AboutKorea/Korean-Life/Religion
http://www.pbs.org/hiddenkorea/religion.htm
http://askakorean.blogspot.ca/2009/12/religions-in-korea.html
On the
first
day of the
first lunar month
(
February 19, 2015
)
Considered
more important
than the Solar new year (January 1st)
3 day celebration to spend with family, to eat lots of food
Children wish their elders a Happy New Year by performing a traditional bow
They are rewarded by recieving money in a
red pocket
, new year's money
Mid-Autumn Festival (Chuseok)
A.k.a.
Korean

Thanksgiving
15th day of the 8th Lunar Month
Honey rice cakes
are eaten
songpyŏn ; "a rice cake steamed on a layer of needles"
They look like the half moon that is present on Chusok
Known as rice cakes that give knowledge
An old saying of how if you eat honey rice cakes, your child would be beautiful
Tteokguk (soup with sliced rice cakes) is a traditional Korean food that is customarily eaten for the New Year.
What is a Hanbok?
Traditional Korean Clothing
Formal

Occasions
Respect
Sulnal
Chusok
Graduation
Prom
Awards Ceremony
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/08/12/6-facts-about-christianity-in-south-korea/
Food
Food
-Culture always revolves around food
- Celebrations
- Family Gatherings
Steamed white rice (Ssalbap)
Kimchi

Chili paste
spice + FLAVOUR
Bibimbap
Banchan
Rice Cakes (Tteok)
Tteokboki
Tteokguk
Ox Bone Soup (Seolleongtang)
Soft tofu stew (Soondubu Jigae)
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