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Copy of Diagnosis and Classification of Psychological Problems
Transcript of Copy of Diagnosis and Classification of Psychological Problems
Psychological Problems Clinical Psychology Clinical Psychology is usually thought of as an
applied field. Clinicians attempt to apply empirically
supported psychological principles to problems of
adjustment and abnormal behavior. This involves
finding successful ways of changing the behavior,
thoughts, & feelings clients. In this way clinical
psychologist reduce their clients maladjustment
or dysfunction or increase level
of adjustment. In 19th Cent., people were treated
for depression by spinning them
in a rotating chair. Clearly, clinical psychologist contemporary views are considerably
more sophisticated than those of their forebears. Clinical Psychology
has moved beyond the primitive views that defined mental illness as possession by demons or spirits.
Even then, however, mental health practices could be bizarre, to say the least. Before clinicians can formulate and administer interventions, however, they must first assess their clients' symptoms of psychopathology and levels of maladjustment. There are so many forms of psychological treatment being used by now . All of these treatment approaches are linked to the ways clinical psychologist decide who needs assessment, treatment or intervention as well as the rationale of providing these services. These judgement are influenced by the labels or diagnoses often applied to people. Prepared by Jazmine Mae Araos no single descriptive feature is shared by all forms of abnormal behavior, no 1 criterion for "abnormality"
no discrete boundary exist between normal and abnormal behavior What is
BEHAVIOR 3 Proposed definitions of abnormal behavior:
Conformity to Norms
The Experience of Subjective Distress
Disability or Dysfunction Conformity to norms: Statistical Infrequency or
Violation of Social Norms: When a persons behavior tends to conform to prevailing social norms or when this particular behavior is frequently observed in other people, the individual is not likely to come to the attention of mental health professionals. However, when a person's behavior becomes patiently deviant, outrageous, or otherwise nonconforming, then he or she is more likely to be categorized as "abnormal." Psychopathology
Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress or the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. Advantages of this definition
attractive for two reasons. Cutoff Points -
the statistical infrequency approach is appealing because it establishes Cutoff Points that are quantitative in nature. Intuitive appeal This principle of statistical deviance is frequently used in interpretation of psychological test scores. The test authors designate a cutoff point in the test manual, often based on statistical deviance from the mean score obtain by a "normal" sample of test takers, scores at or beyond the cutoff are considered "clinically significant" (i.e. abnormal or deviant) Dictionary Says
Definition of 'Cutoff Point'
The point at which an investor decides whether or not a particular security is worth purchasing. The cutoff point is very subjective and will be based on the personal characteristics of the individual investor. Some examples of personal characteristics that may determine the cutoff point include the investor's required rate of return and his or her risk aversion level. It may seem obvious
that those behaviors we ourselves consider abnormal would be evaluated similarly
by others. The struggle to define exactly what A.B. is
does not tend to bother us Investopedia Says
Investopedia explains 'Cutoff Point'
Because cutoff points are largely subjective, they will vary widely among investors. For example, if an investor has a lower required rate of return, he or she will likely pay more for the same security than a person with a higher required rate of return. This translates into a higher cutoff point for the first investor. A cutoff point may also be considered a good "rule of thumb" when considering particular securities, as it may help the investor make more consistent investment decisions. An intuition is typically a blend of how one thinks and feels about a matter prior to reflection. Crudely put, it is sort of a “gut” reaction. Naturally, a “gut” reaction is not an argument for a claim. An argument is when reasons are provided in support of a claim. In the case of an appeal to intuition, the goal of the argument is to “motivate” the reader’s intuitions so s/he accepts your position on the issue. This makes the argument something of a blend between persuasion and argumentation. It is an argument in the sense that the goal is to support a position through reason. It is similar to persuasion in that the goal is also to get the audience accept your view because you have presented something that appeals to their intuitions. Problems with This Definition Conformity criteria seem to play a subtle yet important role in our judgement of others. 1. Conformity of Cutoff Points - It is very easy to use once it is established. However, very few guidelines are available for choosing the cutoff points. 2. The Number of Deviation - Another difficulty with nonconformity standards is the number of behaviors that one must evidence to earn the label "deviant." 3. Cultural Relativity - In short, what is deviant for one group is not necessarily deviant for another. Thus the notion of Cultural relativity is important. Likewise, judgements depending on whether family, school, authorities, or peers are making them. Such variability may contribute to considerable diagnostic unreliability because even clinicians' judgements may be relative to those of the group or groups to which they belong. Subjective
Distress Trephining The subjective feelings and sense of well-being of the individual. Whether a person feels happy or sad, tranquil or troubled, and fulfilled or barren are the crucial considerations. If the person is anxiety-ridden, then he or she is maladjusted regardless of whether the anxiety seems to produce overt behaviors that are deviant in some way. Advantages of this Definition
It seems reasonable to expect that individuals can assess whether they are experiencing emotional or behavioral problems and can share this information when asked to do so. Problems with this Definition Labeling someone maladjusted is not very meaningful unless the basis manifestations are tested. Not everyone whom we consider to be "disordered" reports subjective distress. For example, clinicians sometimes encounter individuals who may have little contact with reality yet profess inner tranquility. Nonetheless, these individuals are institutionalized. Another problem concerns the amount of subjective distress necessary to be considered abnormal. All of us become aware of our own anxieties from time to time, so the total absence of such feelings cannot be the sole criterion of adjustment.