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Transcript of Aksum, Axum
(Maria Kay N.
Kate S.) Geography Advanced Cities and Trades Specialized Workers Aksum was located in East Africa at the southern end of the Red sea, a part now known as Ethiopia.
Red sea and upper nile enabled trade with African, Arabian, Roman and indian states
land was fertile(abundant wheat and barley) There were four main workers that was needed for the Aksums society. Complex Institutions Written Language Advanced Technology Introduction The Fall of Aksum Merchants from the importance of trade allowed them to gain wealth Exported gold, ivory, spices to Arabia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
They received Cloth, jewelry, metals, and steel for weapon
Came in contact with people around the world
They were the first one to be aware of news and ideas from cultures far away like India Farmers brought mountain water to the fields by building dams and digging canals and ponds to hold water
Land didn't hold moisture
to solve this they built level areas of land on hill sides.
These were called terraces, helped hold water, which improved farming Were helpful by keeping the land moisture and for water purposes Builders and Architects Archaeologist found monuments, palaces, thrones, and stone pillars built by them
Had their military conquests carved onto thrones and pillars Monks, Priests Since Christianity spread they brought Christian message to the interior of Aksum
Replaced local temples and shrines with Christian churches and monasteries Aksum used a writing system called Ge'ez Government Religion Economy The D’MS state (Group of people who lived in the Ethiopia area) came to an end around 300 B.C.
It’s roots continiued to Aksum which gained power in the same region two hundred years later Aksum was one of the earliest cities in Ethiopia
Periplus of the Ethiopian Sea a book about the navigation of the red sea
Aksumite (inhabitants of Aksum)
Large population- wide range of people with different religions, cultures and languages
Aksum had large towns with smaller villages and farming lands
port city called Adulis
Grand palaces of Aksum- residences of the royalty and wealthy nobles Monarchy government
ruled by a king Negus Negast
Aksum’s distant provinces often rebelled against the central power of Aksum
Aksum was powerful enough to conquer other lands
strengthened the loyalty of the local rulers by arranging A marriage of convenience
Distant provinces often rebelled against the central power of Aksum Aksum’s wealth was based on farming
About 270A.D. Aksum casted it’s own coins
Based on Roman currency
International trade - essential for the Aksum’s economy
Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea (Rome)
regions east and south for gold, ivory, animal pets, slaves
Navy to defend ports skipped bronze age and went directly to iron age from stone age
Examples of Iron Tools
ex. knives,saws, axes, spears, arrowhead, and hook Produced their coin since 270AD
Was made to participate in Greco-Roman trade in the Red sea
Roman weighting standard was used
Greek writing on some
They were issued in bronze, sliver and gold
usually used Ge’ez(Aksum writing) and carried images of kings with their names
trade increased because coins made trade more efficient and established payment standard 3d and 4th centuries, kings built many thin, sky scraper like stone monuments called “stelae"
serve as tombstones since they were found near royal tombs.
Some are simply smoothed
some had carvings of false doors or windows
some stelaes looked as if they were extending to heaven
They made the stelae stand by burying a part of it underground to hold the part of body seen out of ground. Iron Architecture
Originated in the northern region ofEthiopia
Form of Arabic that has been modified by the Greek and Kushitic
Partly why we know about aksum is because the Aksumites prserved their rulers written documents Ge'ez Before Christianity
400BC, People from Saba(South Arabia) settled in Aksum
Aksum acuquired South Arabian religion
ex. shared same god, Astar
Aksum had Theocratic government
ex. First king of Askum described as the son of "invincible god,Mahren(god of war) Arrival of Christianity Two Syrians landed on Aksum because of boatcrash
Became King Ezana's tutor and converted him
King Ezana converts his royal court in the 4th century
ex. Christian cross on the coin
Only the elite and the upper classes worshiped christianity
The christian spread out to the general public in 451AD
By 6th century Christian became the leading religion
Monastries gain power over land some technologies that made Aksum an outstanding civilization were use of iron, architecture and currency Currency Stelae iron knife iron spear Bronze Gold 12th century a new line of kings called the Zague Dynasty begun
Continued to have the same system of government and they also had no changes in their religion or beliefs
Built their new state in a mountains region called Lasta - far away from the ancient capital Aksum