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Motives and Contexts for Alcohol Usage in College
Transcript of Motives and Contexts for Alcohol Usage in College
for Alcohol Usage in College
One particular area students have the opportunity to
experiment is with their use of alcohol
Drinking motives, personal reasons to consume alcohol has been identified as a primary construct that is predictive of drinking behaviors including drinking frequency and drinking quantity
An estimated 80% of students drink alcohol (NIAAA, 2002) and 40-50% engage in heavy episodic (HED) or binge drinking (four or more drinks in a row for women, or five or more drinks in a row for men)
What are drinking motives?
Jessica Del Pozo
Robin Van Loan
Facing enormous amounts of pressure and a newfound freedom, many college students turn to alcohol
What motives cause us to drink?
Positive reinforcement motives, enhancement and social, are associated with drinking to enhance positive outcomes (i.e. sociability and affect).
Negative reinforcement motives, coping and conformity, are linked to drinking to alleviate negative conditions (i.e. negative affects and fear of negative evaluation
The theory behind drinking motives is based upon the belief that people drink to obtain certain valued outcomes; it is also based on the presumption that drinking behaviors are motivated by different needs
Social and Enhancement motives
These two motives are seen as ways to have fun, make friends and gain confidence in social settings.
In a research study "Social Contexts of Drinking and Subsequent Alcohol Use Disorder Among College Students", researchers identified the following reasons college students drink:
Drinking for enhancement
For facilitation in social situations
Peer acceptance "fitting in"
Drinking to reduce stress
Drinking for confidence in sexual activities
The researchers Cullum, O' Grandy, Armell and Tennen (2012), believe that the number of people in a social setting may psychologically influence the amounts of drinks consumed for an individual.
Participants were asked to record and report their drinking behavior, and drinking contexts from the previous night for 30 days.
Results showed that participants reported receiving 65% of drinking offers in social contexts (Cullum, et al., 2012).
Coping and Conformity motives
We believe that enhancement and conformity motives will have positive correlation with convivial drinking context
We also expect there would be a negative correlation among coping and intimate drinking
To test our hypothesis we ran a correlation analysis
Our overall result indicated that drinking motives (enhancement, conformity, social and coping) were all correlated to the convivial, private-intimate and negative coping contexts (r = .72, p<.001; r = .58, p< .001; r= .48, p<.001).
Based on the results there was enough evidence to help support our first hypothesis that enhancement and conformity motives will have positive correlation with convivial drinking context; however there wasn’t enough to support our second hypothesis that there would be a negative correlation among coping and intimate drinking.
The results were as follows
The Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQR) contains 20 reasons why people might be motivated to drink alcoholic beverages. Participants rate on a 5-point scale how frequently each of the 20 listed reasons motivate them to drink alcoholic beverages. The measure yields four scale scores reflecting different motives for drinking alcohol.
Drinking Context Scale (DCS). The DCS is a self-reported measure, 9-item scale designed to analyze the relationship between excessive alcohol use in young adults, and the contexts that might encourage the specific drinking. The three factors (subscales) analyzed are: convivial drinking, negative coping, and intimate drinking. Questions 1-3 focus on convivial drinking, 4-6 on negative coping, and 7-9 on intimate drinking
After consenting, participants were asked to complete the self-report questionnaire using an online format. Participants were instructed to rate on a 5-point scale how regularly they drink alcohol based upon their personal experience for each given motive and/or context.
Record numbers of students are struggling to adjust to college, feeling overwhelmed by the demands of college life
Coping-motivated alcohol use is positively related to psychological maladjustment in college students; in turn
students experiencing poorer college adjustment as a result of coping drinking motives, are likely at a heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related consequences
Coping and Conformity contd..
Researchers LaBrie, Ehret, Hummer, and Prenovost conducted a study to examine whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment.
Participants (N = 253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences.
Results showed that negative college adjustment was found to be directly related to alcohol consequences and had no relationship with alcohol consumption when simultaneously accounting for other variables (i.e., drinking motives, adjustment levels, and negative alcohol related consequences).
Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences
Students may have varying reasons for drinking as a coping motive, such as reducing internal stress, negative experience, or even for coping with feelings of loneliness.
Negative coping and conformity can be a type of influence that makes you change your behavior or beliefs just so you can "fit in”
Participants were mostly from a hispanic background
Some demographics not mentioned (those who answered "others")
This study does not track data overtime because it is a cross-sectional study
If we could do things differently...
We would have the study be completed in person in order to obtain more accurate results
The ability to identify & classify individuals along these 4 motives has important implications for intervention & treatment; by targeting a persons motives for drinking, the appropriate tools can be provided to enable them to change
Now... lets go have a drink!