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Introduction to Scripture: Historical Overview
Transcript of Introduction to Scripture: Historical Overview
Elements within each kingdom developed their own written record of these traditions
The written records of one kingdom would often emphasize/manipulate events within the tradition in order to cast the kingdom in a favorable light
Conversely, the written records of one kingdom would often emphasize/manipulate events within the tradition in order to cast the rival kingdom in a negative light
As time progressed, other written records emerged which used as sources both the ancient oral traditions and the earlier written records
The northern inhabitants are essentially wiped off the map
In 587 BCE, the Southern Kingdom of Judah is destroyed by the Babylonians
The city of Jerusalem along with the Temple is destroyed; the people are led into exile
Also during this time, the great prophets of the Old Testament act as the moral compass for two kingdoms that frequently lose their way…
The northern inhabitants are essentially wiped off the map
Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
(The Hebrew Bible)
The Septuagint (LXX)
Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible
Not organized in the same way as the Hebrew Bible
Derived from the Greek word that meant originally "measuring rod"
Measurements can be taken to determine the value of something
Consider the idiom:
"Do you measure up?"
IN THE SAME WAY, THE GREEK WORD COULD ALSO REFER TO THE "criterion" OF SOMETHING'S WORTH
When used in reference to the Bible, the word "Canon" refers to the official list or that a particular religious group considers as its "core scriptures" or "authorized books"
The "canon" of scriptures of a particular religious community forms the basis for its religious beliefs, moral precepts, and communal practices
Birth of Jesus?
The Catholic Old Testament is modeled after the Septuagint
These texts were most likely originally written in Greek. They are included in the Catholic Old Testament Canon partly because they were included in the (LXX)
As well as the Greek portions from the Books of Esther and Daniel
The Roman Catholic Church affirms the canonicity of these seven books (plus the segments of Esther and Daniel).
Within Catholic terminology, these seven canonical books are called the "Deuterocanonical books" ("Second canon")
Mainline Protestant denominations have maintained the structure of the Catholic Old Testament canon, but have chosen to adopt the Jewish canon of books
In many Protestant Bibles, however, these seven books are included, though grouped together in their own section outside the actual canon. They refer to this section as the "Apocrypha" ("hidden")
Christian New Testament Canon
Composed as early as the late 3rd century BCE
The Missing Seven...
Two versions of the city's founding:
Genesis: 33: 18-20
Another (Perhaps Simpler) Example:
YHWH said to Moses, "Why are you crying out to me? Tell the Israelites to go forward. Lift up your staff and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it so that the Israelites can go into the sea on dry ground. I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will go in after them. In that way I will get glory for myself over Pharaoh and his entire army, his chariots and his charioteers. Then the Egyptians will know that I am YHWH, after I have gotten glory for myself over Pharaoh, his chariots and his charioteers.
Then Moses stretched out his hands over the sea.
The angel of God who was going ahead of the Israelite army moved and went behind them. The pillar of cloud moved from in front of them and stood behind them. It came between the Egyptian army and the Israelite army. The cloud and the darkness were there. It lit up the night. Neither came near the other all night.
YHWH drove back the sea with a strong east wind all night and turned the sea into dry land.
And the waters were divided. The Israelites went into the sea on dry ground. The waters formed a wall on their right and on their left. The Egyptians pursued them, going into the sea right after them, all of Pharaoh's horses, chariots and charioteers.
At the morning watch YHWH looked down from the pillar of fire and cloud upon the Egyptian army. He threw the Egyptian army into a panic. He clogged their chariot wheels so that they manoeuvred clumsily. The Egyptians said, "Let's get away from the Israelites, for YHWH is fighting for them against Egypt."
YHWH said to Moses, "Stretch your hand out over the sea so that the water will come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and charioteers." So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea.
The sea returned to its normal depth by dawn. The Egyptians fled from it, but YHWH tossed the Egyptians into the sea.
The waters returned and covered the chariots and the charioteers, the entire army of Pharaoh that had followed them into the sea. Not one of them survived. But the Israelites had walked through the sea on dry ground. The waters had formed a wall on their right and on their left.
Thus YHWH saved Israel from the Egyptians that day. Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore. Israel saw the marvellous work that YHWH did against the Egyptians. The people feared YHWH, and put their faith in YHWH and in his servant Moses.