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Literacy Portfolio

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Danielle Gaumer

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Literacy Portfolio

Literacy Portfolio
Danielle Gaumer
Literacy 5-12

Vocabulary Instruction
Vocabulary is an important component in the literacy curriculum. The more words the learners are exposed to, the larger their vocabulary and the less likely he or she is to struggle with reading fluency and comprehension.
The Way out
Color Coding Key:
Common Core


Instructional Strategies
Main Idea

"The understanding of the development of the field of literacy is essential to its well-being and professional status" (King & Stahl, 2012, p.241)
All learning is due to classical conditioning. Behaviors are learned through conditioning. According to this theory, the processes and skills in learning to read and write can be broken down into parts, and practiced and reinforced in the classroom.
The learner gains and retains knowledge by connecting pieces of information in a meaningful way. The learner is viewed as an information processor who absorbs information and stocks it in memory. Language is hardwired into the human brain, and it will naturally unfold if exposed to it in a meaningful and natural way. (Alexander & Fox, 2004, p.39)
The History of Literacy
The Era of Natural Learning:
The Era of Conditioned Learning:
The Era of Information Processing:
The learner is viewed as an active recipient of knowledge, not just a processor. This theory gives the learners a more individualized and active role in their education. Therefore, the teacher becomes more of a guide, rather than a transmitter of knowledge. It became recognized that with explicit instruction, and background knowledge, the learners knowledge can be greatly enhanced. These studies targeted a group of general text processing strategies such as: summarizing, mapping, self-questioning, and predicting. (Alexander & Fox, 2004, p.43)
The Era of Sociocultural Learning:
This theory is contingent on social interaction. Therefore, the majority of the activities involved group discussion. This way the learners had to view the topic from a multiple perspectives. This theory led to the gradual release of responsibility model. (Alexander & Fox, 2004, p.48)
The Era of Engaged Learning:
This theory centers around engaging and motivating the learners. The learner is conceptualized as a motivated knowledge seeker. This way the learner creates personally meaningful and valuable body of knowledge (Alexander & Fox, 2004, p.52).
"Juel found that the fourth-grade poor readers entered fourth grade with limited phonological awareness. This lack of understanding of the initial structure of words contributed to their slowness in learning letter-sound correspondences and decoding (Blachman, 2000, p.484).
Say it and Move it:
The child says the word pronouncing each letter and moves the correct letter to the space to spell the word. This activity helps students separate sounds in spoken words.
Limited phonological awareness and phonic instruction can lead to difficulties in decoding. This limits the learners word recognition and fluency, which will limit the learners overall comprehension of the text.
Helps the students become more aware the sounds in spoken words, especially in relation to blends and digraphs, which can be a tricky concept to understand.
When readers break words into syllables, the words become easier to decode. Learning about syllables also helps students remember spelling patterns. Also, knowing how to decode syllables will help children become more fluent readers
In this activity the learners will have to scour the room and read words. Then, they will have to carefully sound the words out to see if they can be used in the scavenger hunt. This activity requires both word awareness and phoneme awareness skills.
Phonological Awareness and Phonics
The reading teacher could push into the classroom to help conduct one of these lessons on phonological awareness. The teachers should collaborate ahead of time to fill out the lesson according to the learners ability level
Instructional Strategies
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.K.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.K.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
Instructional Strategies
Having students use common root words to make a root tree will broaden the learners vocabulary, and equip them with a skill that they can use across the curriculum to deduce the meaning of difficult words.
Vocabulary Charades
Root Words:
Vocabulary charades helps the students internalize the vocabulary words. This is especially useful for ELL's because it bridges the language barrier to clarify the meaning of the word.
This strategies requires the students to look for clues in the text to help discern meaning. This problem solving tactic can be used across the curriculum.
This vocabulary chart requires the learner to think about the word in a variety of different contexts, which helps the student internalize the word.
"Findings from experimental studies have indicated that vocabulary knowledge and comprehension, suggesting a casual relationship among these fundamental language skills" (Wright, 2012, p.353)
This could be conducted as a push-in activity, or an item to review in a professional development workshop. This activity emphasizes the importance of word choice in our writing. Not only does this activity help the learner improve the quality of his or her writing, but it also makes the students think about word choice in a more sophisticated way.
Picture & strategy- Allen, 2006, 42
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.5.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.5c Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
"Fluency is absolutely necessary for high levels of reading achievement because it depends upon and typically reflects comprehension.[...] There is substantial correlational evidence showing a clear relationship between the amount students read, their fluency, and their reading comprehension" (Pinkulski & Chard, 2005, p. 517).
The less effort the learner has to spend on fluency, the more cognitive capacity is available for comprehension. Therefore, improving fluency will contribute to improving the learners comprehension of the text.
Instructional Strategies
For comprehension to occur a text needs to be read with proper intonation and fluency. This activity allows the teacher the opportunity to scaffold the learners voice intonation and fluency. It also offers the students the opportunity to be creative and delve into text as if they are the part of it, which motivates them to become actively involved in the lesson. The gradual release of responsibility and pre-reading is highly recommended for this strategy.
Pre-reading and annotating a text allows the reader to scope out any stumbling blocks and clarify them before reading aloud. This allows the student to read in a more fluent and coherent manner
Reading aloud to students allows the teacher to model fluency and voice inflection.
Lesson Idea- The teacher could read a book in a monotone and laborious manner, and then contrast it by reading the same book in a lively and fluent manner. Following the reading, the teacher can ask the students to compare and contrast the two readings and engage the students in a discussion on which reading was easier to comprehend and why.
Layering Texts-
Arranging texts according to difficulty helps the learners pick a text that is appropriate for their reading level, which contributes to development of fluency as they progress through the levels. This also minimizes the learners frustration, which is important because the more the students read the more fluent they will become.
The reading coach can pull students out and record them reading aloud. Then the students can watch the recording and make personal goals on how they can improve. The coach and the teacher should evaluate the students' oral reading fluency together and decide which student need to be pulled out.
This lesson plan template is another great resource to help increase student fluency. This way the student can review some key words and sounds that may be troublesome
reading the text. This strategy prepares the learner for the task ahead, which means that the reading should be more fluent and there will be less interruptions to deter from the comprehension process.
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.1.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
Instructional Strategies
"Transactional Strategies Instruction (TSI) can improve student comprehension, and it can be implemented across various reading events in the school day and applied to different text types" (Brown, 2008)
Comprehension is the key to reading success. Just because a child can read, doesn't mean that he or she comprehend what is read. We can give children tools to become more successful academically by providing them with strategies to comprehend the texts they are presented.
These reading strategies help the learner actively draw upon their prior knowledge and cognitive abilities to construct meaning.
Here are some examples of how these strategies may be included in the content area. Activities such as these can be used before reading to activate prior knowledge and improve student comprehension. The color coded theme on the left hand side will coincide with the short story.
This is an example of how the reading strategies can be of use in an English classroom. As the learners read the story they do the following: evaluate the characters actions and words to determine is he/she is a hero, ask questions to clarify points in the story, make predictions when an instance of foreshadowing occurs, visualize when offer details-especially in regards to the setting, a connect this text to the hero's we know today in order to build a response to the unit's essential question (Is chivalry dead?)
By exploring some topics that may come up in the stories, we are giving the students access to knowledge they may need to comprehend the story. This particular activity also exposes the students to words they may be unfamiliar with, but are essential to the unit. During this lesson I had each group of students compile and perform a skit that encompasses the traits listed.This helps the students internalize the information, which leads to better comprehension while reading the stories.
Providing Adequate Background Knowledge
Organizing and conducting teacher study groups to explore new ways of implementing comprehension strategies in the classroom is a great way to explore the latest and greatest research and brainstorm ways to improve comprehension in the classroom. After all two, or more, heads are better than one!
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.4a Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.4c Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.3 Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

Writing Instruction
"The more exposure to complex sentences and well structured sentences, the more likely it is that the child will use such sentences patterns himself. Thus, the exposure helps not only comprehension but also speaking and writing ability as the child matures" (Hall & Moats , 1999, p.58).
"Research supports the idea that writing instruction also improves reading comprehension. For example, students who are given the opportunity to write in conjunction with reading show more evidence of critical thinking about reading. Likewise, many of the skills involved in writing—such as grammar and spelling—reinforce reading skills [...]Instruction in the writing process is also helpful, provided that it is connected to the kinds of writing tasks students will be expected to perform well in high school and beyond."
(Biancarosa & Snow, 2006, p.19)
Solid reading and writing instruction will strengthen the learners ability to read, write and speak. However, the instruction has to be explicit, meaningful, and engaging to make and impact (and no, practice regents essays does not fall into this category without some tweaking). This is no easy task to accomplish!
Instructional Strategies
RAFT Activities

This engaging writing activity not only drawer readers in, but allows them to write for an authentic purpose.
My Life in 7 stories and Free Writing
Although academic writing is unavoidable in the classroom, learners should still be given the opportunity to enjoy writing. This way it won't be viewed as a cumbersome task. Free writes and Jennifer Allen's "my life in seven stories" is a great way to engage students in writing tasks that can be entertaining and therapeutic. Time should be set aside for both writing and group discussion each day.
Creating Checklists:
Turning writing prompts, and expectations into checklists are great tools to organize writing, make sure that the entire question was answered, and all the requirements met. Plus, there is the satisfying feeling of checking items off that list.
Provide training on how to use the six plus one writing traits to assess and teach writing. These training sessions would be most beneficial at a professional development staff meeting because it can, and should be used across the curriculum. The more cohesive writing assessment is the better chance there is of student improvement across the board.

The literacy specialist could also push into the classrooms to help conduct writing conferences, which help students understand their writing strengths and weaknesses, and what can be done to improve the piece in question.
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 5 here.)
Instructional Strategies
Literacy Immersion
The more opportunity students get to read and write in an enjoyable setting, the more they will come to love the tasks that may otherwise seem cumbersome. Also, the more they immerse themselves the larger their vocabulary, fluency, and background knowledge will grow, which ultimately leads to increased comprehension.
"Results indicate a casual relation between early print knowledge [which is acquired through literacy immersion] and later literacy skills and have important implications concerning the primary prevention of reading difficulties" (Piasta, Justice, McGinty &Kaderavek, 2012, p. 810).
Drop Everything And Read
By allowing student time to read a book of their choice in class we are both encouraging literacy immersion, and showing them that reading can be enjoyable. You may want to help reluctant or struggling readers pic a book that will be suited to their needs and interests.
Literacy Rich Environment
By displaying writing, providing books of interest, and creating a welcoming atmosphere the students will be more compelled to engage in literacy activities.
Read Aloud
Start each class with a brief read aloud from a variety of texts (Fiction, non-fiction, poetry, magazines...). This way the students gain exposure to different forms of writing, and there is a better chance of sparking the interests of all learners. These texts may also be a great way to transition into the day's topic.
Provide teachers with graphic organizers that can be used while reading. This way the students can keep track of their ideas and the teachers can keep the students actively involved.

Help students choose appropriate independent reading books.

Help teachers compile multimodal text sets to teach with.
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.K.10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
Motivation and Culturally Responsive Teaching
"Culturally responsive teaching is using the cultural knowledge, prior experience, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them: it teaches to and through the strengths of these students" (Gay, 2000, p. 312).
"Because culture strongly influences the
attitudes, values, and behaviors that students
and teachers bring to the instructional process,
it has to likewise be a major determinant of how the problems of underachievement are solved" (Gay, 2002, p. 114).
Teaching to students' interests and about items that they are familiar/interested in will bolster achievement.
Instructional Strategies
Creating an Eye Catching Text Set
These texts encompass a range of topics from teen angst to exploring the LGBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender) world, to discovering different cultures and values. These texts also expose the reader to different varieties of writing: from poetry and graphic novels, to a journalistic style of writing. The diversity that these texts have to offer allow the students to gain exposure to new topics as well as engage in a text that they may find interesting. Not to mention that it will bolster student achievement for those that are already familiar with the topics presented in each text.
Getting to know your students is as important to cultural responsive teaching as it is to inspiring motivation. Based on what you know of the child and their family you can create motivating and engaging lessons. Here are a couple ways to get to know your students:
-Use ice breakers on the first day of school
-Ask the parents to tell you something about their child at open house.
-Ask questions when you have the child one-on-one let them know you are interested in them as a person.
Multimodal Learning
The technology available today allows teachers to make literacy activities exciting and enjoyable. By using unconventional sources to teach/enhance reading and writing instruction teachers are able to actively engage even the most reluctant of students. Therefore, using what students know and like will help increase academic achievement because the students are more likely to understand what is being taught. We are bringing the material to their level and connecting it with something they understand and enjoy.
- Provide teachers with workshops on becoming technology savvy.

-Collaborate with teachers to create a culturally responsive and diverse text set that will work within their unit.

-Include the latest research on motivation and sociocultural teach on a accessible bulletin board
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.9 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.7 Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
Assessment and RTI
"[RTI- response to intervention] is commonly understood to represent a meaningful integration of assessment and intervention within a multilevel system to prevent school failure" (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2009, p. 250).
Assessment data are used to inform interventions and determine the effectiveness of them" (Mesmer &Mesmer, 2008, p. 287).
Assessment data should be used to inform instruction and determine which students qualify for interventions. Assessments should be performed frequently to assess whether or not the intervention is effective, and determine if the learner is ready to move on.
What is RTI & how does it work?
RTI stands for response to intervention. The students are assessed between every tier to determine if extra interventions are necessary and if the interventions are effective.
What type of assessment should be used?
Students should be assessed in a variety of different literacy skills some of these include:
Early Grades- Later Grades:
Nonsense Word Fluency Oral Reading Fluency
Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Reading Comprehension
Letter Sound Fluency Written Expression
Letter Naming Fluency

AIMSWEB is a program designed specifically for RTI implementations. This program has readily available assessments in the areas listed above and more.
Administrating and training others to administrate assessment.

Professional development showcasing intervention strategies that can be used with at risk kids.

Push into the classroom to assist the teacher in performing group interventions based on the assessment data.

Pull students out to engage in intervention strategies.
Common Core
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.K.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.K.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

Instructional Strategies
This template is great way to construct an intervention according to the learners needs
Literature circles grouped by ability level can be an effective intervening strategy. This way the teacher can monitor the students more closely and provide the scaffolding necessary for learners performing at specific levels. Also, the students can collaborate more effectively because they are all in the same range, which inspires confidence
"The NRP [National Reading Panel] report indicates that students taught with systematic phonics instruction have better reading scores" (Brady, 2011, p.6).
Bingo is a perfect way for students to practice phonics in a fun and engaging way.
"Studies have documented that resources alone are not likely to improve achievement [...] As a sociocultural phenomenon, literacy develops in settings that provides resources and opportunities for children to become involved with it's cultural tools [...] Thus, to understand how literacy begins for a growing diversity of children we must study the environments in which they come to know and experience literacy in its many forms." (Newman & Celano, 2012, p. 12)
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