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Approaches to ESP Teaching
Transcript of Approaches to ESP Teaching
The basic theoretical hypothesis of this
view is that underlying any language behavior are certain skills and strategies which the learner uses in order to produce
or comprehend discourse.
This approach looks at the competence
that underlies performance and it sees the ESP course as helping learners to gain abilities which will continue to develop
after the course itself.
This way of teaching
makes learners use language in tasks that reflect real life
. Richards, et al. (1991) define task as “an activity which is designed to help achieve a particular language goal.”
Problem-solving is an element in tasks, for which students need to use the target language.
Students accomplish this by using whatever language resources they possess
and, as they move on, they notice the gap between what they already know and what they need to know or improve so they can carry out a specific task in English.
This approach uses the learners as a means for
identifying the target situation, the type of register and discourse for creating the objectives, materials and evaluations for the course.
The student plays no further part in the process
of syllabus design.
Approaches to ESP Teaching
This kind of instruction
focuses on using real-life
subject matters as vehicles for teaching
Students use the language to fulfil a real purpose (e.g. research, entertainment) which get students more motivated to learning.
It also helps developing a much wider knowledge of the world which can improve their general educational needs.
CBI is very popular among EAP (English for Academic Purposes) teachers as it helps students
to develop valuable study skills such as
note taking, summarising and extracting
key information from texts.
This approach states that learning should be seen in the context in which it takes place.
Besides being a mental process, learning also implies a
negotiation between individuals and society:
society sets the target and individuals must do their best to get as close to that target as possible. The learner is one factor
to consider in the
This model places the student in the center of the learning process.
Students are to be active participants who learn at their own pace and use their own strategies
, they are more intrinsically
than extrinsically motivated.
Learning is more individualized than standardized, activating how-to-learn skills like problem-solving, critical
and reflective thinking.
An approach is a description of how you go about teaching your students.
Such description explains what you do when you teach, i.e.:
The sorts of teaching and learning activities that you have planned (lecture, tutorial, self-directed learning, case study, workshop, workplace learning);
Ways in which you engage students with the subject matter (provide students with basic facts, relate new knowledge to what students already know, build in interaction, be passionate and enthusiastic);
The ways in which you support your students (encourage questions, set formative assessments, provide constructive feedback).
Teaching Approaches... What are they about?
Analyze the strengths and
weaknesses each learning approach
has considering the following questions:
Does it allow for…?:
Considering different learning styles students
Sistematically organize language contents to be studied?
Taking into account social, psychological, pedagogical
and linguistic variables that affect the student ?
Giving the students the chance to study
effectively on their own?
Monitoring students' performance?
Using materials which are adapted to learner's
Practicing the target language
The mode or manner of teaching (lecture, tutorial, laboratory work).
An understanding of how people learn (through environmental influence, by information processing and insight, as a personal act to fulfil potential or as the product of interaction/observation in social contexts).
An understanding of how to facilitate learning (teacher qualities, teaching principles).
it also considers: