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Surveys

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by

Julie Chen

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of Surveys

Self-Administered Surveys
The self-administered questionnaire is everywhere in modern live. A short questionnaire is left to be completed by the participant in a convenient location or is packaged with a product. Self-administered mail surveys are delivered by the Postal Service, fax, and courier service. Others include computer-delivered and intercept studies.
10234015 Chloe Liu
10234018 Julie Chen
10234026 Doreen Liu
10234035 Ron Chou

Characteristics of the Communication Approach

We can observe conditions, behavior, events, people, or processes

We can communicate with people about various topics

Survey via Personal Interview
A two-way conversation between a trained interviewer and a participant

A personal interview might have been a preferable communication method
Evaluation of the Personal Interview Survey
Personal interviewing is costly in terms of money and time

Surveys
Evaluation of the Personal Interview Survey
Get the deep information and detail that can be secured
Prescreen to ensure the correct participant is replying
exception: intercept interview targeting participants in centralized locations
Changes in the social climate made it more difficult
Results are affected by interviewers
Evaluation of the Self-Administered Survey
Computer-delivered self-administered questionnaire/called computer-assisted self-interviews/CASIs use online service to reach participants

Participants may be targeted or self-selecting

The questionnaire and its managing software may reside on the computer/network/cloud/sent to the participant by mail-disk-by-mail(DBM) survey
Selecting an Optimal Survey Method
Selecting an Optimal Survey Method
Surveys via personal interview are the most expensive communication method and take the most field time

Telephone surveys are moderate in cost and offer the quickest option

Questionnaires administered by e-mail or the Internet are the least expensive
Outsourcing survey services


When confidently is likely to affect competitive advantages→
When the members of organizations possess unique knowledge→
When the clients have difficulty with dealing with some specialties→
Regardless, the work may be contracted separately or as a whole
If your investigative questions call for information from hard-to-reach or inaccessible participants→
If data must be collected very quick→
If you want your objective requires extensive questioning and probing→
If none of the choices fit→

Intercept surveys are at places such as malls or street corners
The survey may use a traditional paper-and-pencil questionnaire or a computer-delivered survey
The respondent participants are usually without interviewer assistance



Evaluation of the Self-Administered Survey
The survey via telephone Interview
Important in survey research
High level of telephone service penetration→ low-cost and efficient way

Advantages of telephone Interview

- Lower about 45% ~ 64% comparing
with personal interviews
- From single location→use fewer and
more skilled interviewers
Advantages of telephone Interview
Cost
Self-administered survey costs less than surveys via personal interviews
Computer-delivered studies eliminate the cost of printing surveys
Computer-delivered surveys cost low of pre- and postnotification
Sample Accessibility
Using mail self-administered surveys enables researchers to contact inaccessible participants

Using computer-delivered survey can reach samples that are identified no way other than their computer and internet use
Time Constraints
The participant in a mail survey can take more time to collect facts than in other surveys

Computer-delivered studies often have time limitations

Topic Coverage
Researchers normally do not expect to obtain large amount of information

Participants generally refuse to cooperate with a complex mail questionnaires

The wrong address, e-mail or postal can result in nondelivery or nonreturn
Lack of proper instructions for completion may lead to nonresponse
The return address may be lost, so the questionnaire cannot be returned

Maximizing Participation in the Self-Administered Survey
Maximizing Participation in the Self-Administered Survey
Clear specified return directions and devices improve response rates.
Monetary incentives for participation increase response rates
An appeal for participation is essential

Suggestions to improve response rates
Maximizing Participation in the Self-Administered Survey
Are easy to read.
Offer clear response directions
Include personalized communication

Suggestions of designing questionnaires
Economical when interviewees are scattered

Moderate cost
- Long-distance service
options at a reasonable cost
Saving in time and money by combining telephone interview with computer equipment
- Computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI)
Advantages of telephone Interview
→No human interviewer
→Computer conduct all the interview
→Touch-tone data entry(TDE)
→Voice recognition(ASR)
→Automatic speech recognition(ASR)

- Computer-administered telephone survey
Advantages of telephone Interview
- Noncontact rate: a ratio of
potential but unreached contacts
to all potential contacts.
→The rate of Computer-administered
telephone survey is similar to personal
telephone interview
→New technology (call-filtering system)
increase the noncontact rate
Advantages of telephone Interview
- Refusal rate: the ratio of contacted
participants who decline the
interview to all potential contacts.

• Faster completion of a study
• Reducing interviewer bias

Advantages of telephone Interview
Disadvantages of telephone Interview
Communication approach & Survey
- Using filtering devices and service
- Effective legislation
- No guideline for identifying
location→source of bias
Inaccessible households
→The refusal rate of Computer-administered telephone survey is higher than personal telephone interview because people hang up easily
The
communication approach
involves surveying or interviewing people.

A
survey
is a measurement process used to collect information during an interview.

The
goal of the survey
is to find the similarities and differences of the data across the chosen sample.


Error in Communication Research
There are three major sources of error in communication research:

Measurement questions and Survey instruments
Interviewers
Participants

Interviewer Error
Failure to secure full participant cooperation
Failure to record answers accurately and completely
Failure to consistently execute interview procedures
Falsification of individual answers or whole interviews
Inappropriate influencing behavior
Physical presence bias

Participant Error
The participant must possess the information being targeted by questions.

They must understand their role in the interview as the provider of accurate information.

They must have adequate motivation to cooperate.

Participant-Based Errors
The participant must believe that the experience will be pleasant and satisfying.
They must believe that answering the survey is a worthwhile use of their time.
They must dismiss any mental reservation that they might have about participation.

Response-Based Errors
The participant fails to give a correct answer or the complete answer.
Selecting questions qualify participants when there is doubt about their ability to answer.

Response bias & Social desirability bias
Response bias:
Participants also cause error by responding in such a way as to unconsciously or consciously misrepresent their actual behavior, and preferences.

Social desirability bias:
They create response bias when they modify their answers to be socially acceptable.

Acquiescence
Acquiescence- the tendency to be agreeable

For participant, acquiescence may be a result of lower cognitive skills related to a concept, or language difficulties

Researchers can contribute to acquiescence by the speed with which they ask questions and the placement of questions in an interview

Reasons that participants create response bias
Want to shorten the time spent in the interview.
Have insufficient information to form a judgment.
Interpret a question differently from what was intended by researcher.


- Unlisted number
- Random dialing or combinations of
directories and random dialing
Disadvantages of telephone Interview
Disadvantages of telephone Interview
Disadvantages of telephone Interview
Disadvantages of telephone Interview
Inaccessible households
-Random dialing: requires choosing
phone exchanges or exchange blocks
and then generating random numbers
within these blocks for calling
Inaccurate or non-functioning numbers
- Depends on the participant’s
interest in the topic
- 10 minutes has been thought
of as ideal
Limitation on interview length
- Limits the complexity of the survey
- Nine-point scaling: using the
telephone dial or keypad
Limitations on use of visual or complex questions
Disadvantages of telephone Interview
- Less rewarding than personal interview
- Improve the enjoyment of the interview
Ease of interview termination
- Interviewees easier to terminate a
phone interview and telemarketing
Less participant involvement
Disadvantages of telephone Interview
Distracting physical environment
- Replacement of home or office phones
with cellular and wireless phones
- Under possibly distracting
circumstances and possibly increase
the refusal rate
Vary from full-service operations to specialty consultants
The
great strength of the survey
as a primary data collecting approach is its versatility.
Full transcript