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Respiration

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Kathleen M

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Respiration

Respiration
By: Kathleen
Block 4

Respiration
divided into
four
areas:
Breathing
External Respiration
Internal Respiration
Cellular Respiration
the movement of air into and out of the lungs.
the exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
between
Lungs
and
Blood
the exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
between
Blood
and
Tissue
the process which produces
ATP
in mitochondria, requires oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
HOW AIR IS PASSED ONTO
THE LUNGS
Air enters the nasal passages and the hairs trap dust and debris. The air is then warmed and moistened by the sinuses.
PHARYNX
- warmed and moistened air passes through the nose and the pharynx.
- extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.
NASAL CAVITY
- the nose is separated into two nasal cavities separated by the
septum
.
- the nasal cavities are connected to the tear ducts (causing a runny nose when you cry), and to the ears through the
eustachian tubes
.
- special cells at the top of the nasal cavities are scent receptors.
SEPTUM
EPIGLOTTIS
- when we breathe, the glottis is open, when we swallow the
epiglottis
covers the glottis.
- thin elastic structure located at the root
of the tongue.
LARYNX
- also called "voice box"
- elastic ligaments called vocal cords
stretch from the back to the front of the
larynx.
- these cords vibrate when air is expelled
past them. The vibrations produce sound.
- the pitch of the voice depends on the length, thickness and degree of elasticity of the vocal cords and the tension they are held at.
VIDEO
TRACHEA
- also called "windpipe."
- held open by cartilaginous rings.
-lined with ciliated mucous membranes.
- the cilia beat upward to move up mucus and any dust or particles that were inhaled or swallowed.
smoking can destroy cilia
BRONCHI
- trachea divides into two bronchi.

- bronchi branch into many smaller passages called bronchioles that extend into the lungs.
- as the bronchioles branch out, their walls get thinner.
- each bronchiole ends in sacs called alveoli, they take up most of your lungs.
alveoli
ALVEOLI IN YOUR LUNGS
VIDEO
- approximately 300 million alveoli per lung.
- each alveolar sac is surrounded by capillaries carrying deoxygenated blood.
- gas exchange occurs between blood
and air in alveoli.
- the alveoli are lined with a film of lipoprotein to prevent them from collapsing when air leaves them.
DIAPHRAGM
- powers breathing.
- dome shaped muscle between the thoracic and abdominal cavity.
- thin muscle
VIDEO
PLEURAL MEMBRANE
- lungs are enclosed by two pleural membranes.
- one membrane lines the chest walls,
and an inner membrane lines the lung.

- fluid is in between, makes an air tight seal.
Q:
WHAT POWERS BREATHING?
negative pressure
increasing the volume in the thoracic cavity (ribs).

the contraction of the diaphragm muscle.
air pressure that is less than the pressure of the surrounding air.
when the diaphragm contracts, the space within the lungs increases,
intercostal muscles will also contract when you breathe in.
the diaphragm and rib muscles relax.
WHAT CONTROLS THE BREATHING RATE?
- carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions
in the blood control the breathing rate.
1.
Chemoreceptors in arteries detect the increased
carbon dioxide and hydrogen levels.
2.
The Chemoreceptors then send a signal to a breathing center in the medulla oblongata of the brain.
3.
The medulla oblongata then sends a nerve impulse to the diaphragm to increase breathing rate.
HEMOGLOBIN
hemoglobin is more attracted to oxygen in cool, more basic lungs.
Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and
is an iron containing respiratory protein.
- carries oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
200 million hemoglobin per
red blood cell.
4 oxygen bind per hemoglobin
molecule because they form
a loose association.
- will bind oxygen in the lungs, and release it in the tissues
-
takes up
more oxygen in;
low temp. and basic or neutral lungs.
-
gives up
more oxygen in;
higher temp. and more acidic tissues.
THE END
thanks for a great semester
Mr. Eckert
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Hb = Hemoglobin
HbO2 = oxyhemoglobin
HbCO2 = carbaminhemoglobin
HHb = Reduced hemoglobin
HCO3 = Bicarbonate
1. Hb + O2 HbO2
2. HbO2 Hb + O2
3. Hb + CO2 HbCO2
4. HbCO2 Hb + CO2
5. HHb Hb + H+
6. Hb + H+ HHb
1,4 and 5 happen in lungs
2,3 and 6 happen in tissues
*
this reaction is catalyzed by the
enzyme carbonic anhydrase
*
INTERNAL RESPIRATION
- is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and tissue fluid.
- oxygen diffuses from the blood into tissue
- carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues into the blood
Carbon Dioxide
- a little amount of carbon is taken up by hemoglobin.
- most of carbon combines with water to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates to H+ and bicarbonate.
* remember that hemoglobin acts like a buffer
WHAT CREATES NEGATIVE PRESSURE?
A:
Q:
A:
WHAT IS NEGATIVE PRESSURE?
Q:
A:
HOW DOES THE VOLUME INCREASE IN THE RIBS?
Q:
A:
I
BREATHING
Q:
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE DIAPHRAGM MUSCLE CONTRACTS?
A:
Q:
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE EXHALE?
A:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
- respiration notes

- youtube

- google images

- www.innerbody.com
QUESTIONS
TRUE OR FALSE
1. internal respiration involves exchange involves
exchange between LUNGS and BLOOD.
2. air passes through the epiglottis first.

3. there are apprx. 300 million alveoli per lung.
4. the function of the larynx is to facilitate gas exchange.
5. smoking doesn't destroy cilia.
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
- is gas exchange between the alveoli and
blood.
- oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood.
- carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the lungs.
1. FALSE
2. FALSE
3. TRUE
4. FALSE
5. FALSE
ANSWERS
Identify 5 parts from this diagram...
ANSWER
I
BIOLOGY
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