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European Exploration and Colonization

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Lyndsay Fleming

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of European Exploration and Colonization

European Exploration and Colonization
By: Ms. Fleming

Why did the Europeans Go Exploring?
The 3 G's
New trade routes opened up opportunities for wealth
Missionaries spread Christianity
Explorers were considered heroes; countries competed for colonies

Trade Routes
1400s—major trade routes from the East to Europe went through 2 Italian cities (Venice & Genoa)
-Italian merchants marked up the prices on the goods & sold them throughout Europe
Other European countries resented the huge profits made by Italians & began to look for other routes to the East…
Europeans created new trade routes to bring products from Europe to India, China, & the Spice Islands
Contributed to the expansion of the empires of Portugal, Spain, England, and France…

Portugal's Empire
15th century: led the world in sea exploration and explored the western coast of Africa
Portuguese wanted to find a trade route around Africa to Asia
Believed they could make a lot of money as traders if they could get Asian goods for a cheaper price
Also wanted to spread Christianity along Africa’s west coast

Son of the Portuguese king
Sent more than 50 expeditions down the west coast of Africa
-Wanted to establish Portuguese colonies & break the Muslim hold on trade routes
Created a naval observatory that taught students navigation, astronomy, & cartography

Prince Henry the Navigator
Unable to make money trading gold, so he tried creating sugar cane plantations
--Sugar cane was a very profitable crop, but required lots of labor
Henry imported slaves from Africa to work the fields
--This was successful & was later copied in the New World
--Encouraged a slave trade that lasted another 400 years…

Prince Henry
Discoverin' America
Portugal's Empire Grows!
For the next 300 years, Portuguese sailors continued to explore East Africa where they established forts & trading posts
By 1571, a string of outposts connected Portugal to Africa, India, South Pacific Islands, & Japan
Portugal grew wealthy from these trade routes, but…
Its most profitable colony was Brazil

Spanish explorers were searching for a trade route through or around North & South America to Asia
Wanted to find a quicker route to the gold & spices in Asia

Why'd Spain go Sailing?
Christopher Columbus
1490s—CC, an Italian, was given ships & sailors by the Spanish monarchy
--They wanted him to try to find a quick route through the Atlantic Ocean to Asia
He discovered the Bahamas, but thought he was in Asia… “East Indies”
--Later, it was realized that he discovered 2 new continents!
Exploration of these areas brought great wealth to Spain

Christopher Columbus
Spain's Growing Empire
Huge empire that spanned the globe
Spanish conquistadors conquered the Inca and Aztec civilizations in the 1500s (South America)
--Looking for gold & spices
--Used missionaries to convert natives to Christianity
Claimed huge areas of North & South America & ruled over them for 300 years

England's Empire
England used to be one of three countries (England, Scotland, & Wales)
1700s, the three united and became Great Britain
British empire was the largest in history
At its peak, Great Britain controlled: Canada, Australia, India, much of Africa, and numerous islands
The Sun never sets on the British empire

English Exploration
England's Empire Grows and Grows!
North America came under British control in the 1700s
Lost American colonies in 1776
Maintained control over Canada until 20th century
Great Britain colonized Australia in 1788
Used it as a penal (prison) colony to relieve overcrowded jails in England

France's turn
French possessed colonies around the world from 1600 to 1900
Also dominated much of the European continent
By 1812, France controlled much of Germany, Italy, & France

France's colonies
Established other colonies in the 16th-17th centuries:
Islands in the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, & the North Atlantic
France also maintained influence in Canada, South America, Southeast Asia, & Northwest Africa

Leading to Exploration...
The Crusades:
Military expeditions sent by the
Catholic Church to capture the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks
Not successful, but had a few positive results:
-Europeans learned to draw better maps and build better ships
-Exposed Europeans to spices & goods from the East
Full transcript