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Learning Theories

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Leah McCarver

on 24 July 2015

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Transcript of Learning Theories

Behaviorism
Learning

Theories
Leah McCarver
MAT 5310

"Blank Slate"
B.F. Skinner
Reinforcement/Punishment
Primary Reinforcement
Secondary
Reinforcemen
t
Stimulus Response Reinforcement
Teacher is the Facilitator
Classroom Examples
Pros and Cons
To get a student to complete all of his homework assignments, drop his lowest grade.
Receives candy for good contribution to class discussion
`
aka: Operant
Conditioning
Pros and Cons
Classroom Examples
Social Cognitive Theory
Learning happens in Social Context
Albert Bandura
Teacher is the Facilitator
Learn by observing and imitating models
Key Theorist of the Social Cognitive Theory
Reciprocal Causation
Cognitive Theory
Constructivism
Your brain is a "filing cabinet" filled with all of the knowledge that you've gained through your experiences.
Classroom Examples
Pros and Cons
Humanism
Classroom Examples
Classroom Examples
Pros and Cons
Pros and Cons
Abraham Maslow
Key Theorist of Humanism
Maslow's Hierarchy of Need
Choice and Freedom are important
Hot Cognition: learning that is emotionally charged
Motivation is Goal-Oriented
Two examples of Humanistic Classrooms
Montessori Classroom
Reggio Emelio Classroom
Key Theorist of Behaviorism
Social Cognitive Pros
Requires motivation
Undesirable models can reinforce bad behavior
Not easy to really tell if learning has been achieved
If behavior is well modeled, good behavior shows a child how to behave, while bad behavior shows a child how not to behave

Social Cognitive Cons
Classroom-Based Example
of Social Cognitive Theory:
To teach her students how to work an Algebra problem, the teacher works several problems on the board.
To teach her students how to hem a skirt, the Home-Economics teacher demonstrates how to hem.
Classroom-Based Example
of Constructivism:
Students are presented with a problem and the teacher guides the students as they discuss the problem and figure out various ways to solve it.
Use of the Jigsaw learning activity in which learning is based upon students teaching themselves and their fellow classmates
Classroom-Based Example
of the Cognitive Theory:
Students participate in problem-based or project-based learning
Present problems that require logical, analytical thinking ("brain teasers" are a great way to do this)
To meet a student's "Belonging" need, students are put into peer groups to aid in discussion and studying.
To meet a student's "Safety" need, clear school and classroom rules and procedures are established and practiced.
Classroom-Based Example
of Humanism:
Constructivism Pros
Lacks structure
No set curriculum
Can lead to frustration and confusion because of the inability of the student to make the connection between the knowledge they already have and what they are learning for themselves
Constructivism Cons
Humanism Pros
Does not take in to account the influence that social groups have on the student
Underestimates the effect of the teacher
Can be time-consuming
Takes in to account the students' inner thoughts
Takes in to account the relationship between the teacher, the student, and the classroom atmosphere

Humanism Cons
Cognitive Pros
When relevant schemas do not exist, student is at a disadvantage in learning
There is a finite, pre-set goals which can limit the potential learning of the student
Schemas make learning more meaningful
Has the potential to provide more meaningful learning that will stay with the student for a longer time period

Cognitive Cons
Students have more ownership over learning
Places more emphasis on sensory input
Quite effective for special needs students
`
Teacher is the Facilitator
Lev Vygotsky
Key Constructivist Theorist
Students construct knowledge rather than acquire it
Learning is the reward
Zone of Proximate Development
Classroom-Based Example
of Behaviorism:
Behaviorism Pros
Does not account for all types of learning
Does not explain learning for which there is no reinforcement activity
Can be observed or measured
Can be modified to different age groups

Behaviorism Cons
taken from: http://www.principals.in/uploads/pdf/Instructional_Strategie/learningtheory.pdf
taken from: http://www.funderstanding.com/theory/behaviorism/
picture taken from http://www.archaid.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/pigeon.jpg
Slide 2
Ormrod, J. (2007). "Behaviorist View of Learning." In
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
(6th ed., pp. 305-332). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Pictures:
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.archaid.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/pigeon.jpg
FrontPage. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://tabularosa1.pbworks.com/w/page/29690338/FrontPage
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.kesdeefoundation.org/images/page-48.gi
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://gcuonline.georgian.edu/field_ps432_40/images/OC_paradigm.gif
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://o.quizlet.com/.9o3ZrCOMcXe-z.x54A9lQ_m.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.sandrarief.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/rewards-7.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from https://classofmotivation.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/picture1.png
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://education-portal.com/cimages/multimages/16/extrinsic-motivation-illustration.jpg
Advantages of Behaviorism in Teaching. (2011, July 5). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8692831_advantages-behaviorism-teaching.html
Behaviorism. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.funderstanding.com/theory/behaviorism/
picture taken from http://tabularosa1.pbworks.com/w/page/29690338/FrontPage
from http://www.kesdeefoundation.org/images/page-48.gif
picture taken from http://gcuonline.georgian.edu/field_ps432_40/images/OC_paradigm.gif
picture taken from http://o.quizlet.com/.9o3ZrCOMcXe-z.x54A9lQ_m.jpg
picture taken from http://www.sandrarief.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/rewards-7.jpg
picture taken from https://classofmotivation.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/picture1.png
from http://education-portal.com/cimages/multimages/16/extrinsic-motivation-illustration.jpg
picture taken from http://image.slidesharecdn.com/socialcognitivetheory-140914105333-phpapp01/95/social-cognitive-theory-13-638.jpg?cb=1410710103
from http://classroom-assessment-theory-into-practice.wikispaces.com/file/view/teamwork_image_tcm108-193350.jpg/259425416/230x230/teamwork_image_tcm108-193350.jpg
picture taken from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/BanduraFEA2008.jpg
picture taken from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/baneffeffects.gif
picture taken from http://motivation-project.wikispaces.com/file/view/Social_cognitive_diagram5.GIF/203402356/Social_cognitive_diagram5.GIF
from http://image.slidesharecdn.com/howbandurawouldincreaseself-efficacy-111120222232-phpapp02/95/how-bandura-would-increase-self-efficacy-10-728.jpg?cb=1321850437
picture taken from http://thatresourcesite.com/thatresourcesite/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/gif_education_fun_class001-423x320.gif
(
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
, 2007, Chapter 10 "Social Cognitive Views of Learning")
Slide 3
Ormrod, J. (2007). "Social Cognitive Views of Learning." In
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
(6th ed., pp. 344-375). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Pictures:
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://image.slidesharecdn.com/socialcognitivetheory-140914105333-phpapp01/95/social-cognitive-theory-13-638.jpg?cb=1410710103
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://classroom-assessment-theory-into-practice.wikispaces.com/file/view/teamwork_image_tcm108-193350.jpg/259425416/230x230/teamwork_image_tcm108-193350.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/BanduraFEA2008.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://motivation-project.wikispaces.com/file/view/Social_cognitive_diagram5.GIF/203402356/Social_cognitive_diagram5.GIF
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/baneffeffects.gif
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://image.slidesharecdn.com/howbandurawouldincreaseself-efficacy-111120222232-phpapp02/95/how-bandura-would-increase-self-efficacy-10-728.jpg?cb=1321850437
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://site.rockbottomgolf.com/blog_images/exercise_motivation.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://site.rockbottomgolf.com/blog_images/exercise_motivation.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://thatresourcesite.com/thatresourcesite/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/gif_education_fun_class001-423x320.gif
Jean Piaget
Key Theorist of the Cognitive Theory
Slide 4
McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Pictures:
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://a4.files.biography.com/image/upload/c_fill,dpr_1.0,g_face,h_300,q_80,w_300/MTIwNjA4NjMzOTQxMjMxMTE2.jpg
Ormrod, J. (2007). Knowledge Construction. In Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (6th ed., pp. 231-247). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.centreforcbtcounselling.co.uk/images/depression_2.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://mccownleggett.weebly.com/uploads/2/6/1/4/26145398/3055755.png?643
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://instructure-uploads.s3.amazonaws.com/account_70000000000010/attachments/22349956/image072.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQi6TUPzaKBuYWHJU2oAzMwPxQaTakjg190oGvxvJ1e9n-Cqy9H
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/05/93/ba/0593baf9a36cdaaec25b3fe09ec5d22c.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://i.ytimg.com/vi/7cOKbiuGhp8/maxresdefault.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.principals.in/uploads/pdf/Instructional_Strategie/learningtheory.pdf
picture take from http://a4.files.biography.com/image/upload/c_fill,dpr_1.0,g_face,h_300,q_80,w_300/MTIwNjA4NjMzOTQxMjMxMTE2.jpg
picture taken from http://www.centreforcbtcounselling.co.uk/images/depression_2.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://mccownleggett.weebly.com/uploads/2/6/1/4/26145398/3055755.png?643
picture taken from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/05/93/ba/0593baf9a36cdaaec25b3fe09ec5d22c.jpg
picture taken from http://i.ytimg.com/vi/7cOKbiuGhp8/maxresdefault.jpg
picture taken from https://instructure-uploads.s3.amazonaws.com/account_70000000000010/attachments/22349956/image072.jpg
taken from http://www.principals.in/uploads/pdf/Instructional_Strategie/learningtheory.pdf
Slide 5
Ormrod, J. (2007). "Knowledge Construction". In
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
(6th ed., pp. 231-247). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Pictures:
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://www.marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/images/portrait.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://i.ytimg.com/vi/7cOKbiuGhp8/maxresdefault.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQB7_fUHG4ZB7nVT8moL2Cf3nmyRZJXZSNDB8iWP30JLJoLaeDz
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://www.withfriendship.com/images/e/24019/Zone-of-proximal-development-wallpaper.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/bdodge/scaffold/What_Is_Scaffolding.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://fy11pd4ets.pbworks.com/f/1279771849/constructivism.png
The Pros and Cons of Constructivist Learning Theory. (n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/76645-pros-and-cons-of-constructivist-learning-theory/
picture taken from https://www.marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/images/portrait.jpg
picture taken from http://i.ytimg.com/vi/7cOKbiuGhp8/maxresdefault.jpg
picture taken from https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQB7_fUHG4ZB7nVT8moL2Cf3nmyRZJXZSNDB8iWP30JLJoLaeDz
picture taken from https://www.withfriendship.com/images/e/24019/Zone-of-proximal-development-wallpaper.jpg
picture taken from http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/bdodge/scaffold/What_Is_Scaffolding.jpg
(
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
, 2007, Chapter 7 "Knowledge Construction,")
picture taken from http://fy11pd4ets.pbworks.com/f/1279771849/constructivism.png
taken from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/76645-pros-and-cons-of-constructivist-learning-theory/
Slide 6
Ormrod, J. E. (2007). "Motivation and Affect". In
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
(6th ed., pp. 383-397). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Pictures:
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.famouspsychologists.org/psychologists/abraham-maslow.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://i1.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg/450px-Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg.png?w=695
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/91/4b/03/914b031c211f563145281d2842b9a135.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://static1.squarespace.com/static/53b1a6e2e4b03918d8ffd1ff/t/545ce369e4b04efe62790262/1415373673525/
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ7RizyBZPYSFikC01Dyauyh5UKKdi8qfFfgq8t_A-t7n29sVHm
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.metrokids.com/Montessori 1.jpg
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://img.scoop.it/K3tz_Vc2xrERzFOQFIgcG4XXXL4j3HpexhjNOf_P3YmryPKwJ94QGRtDb3Sbc6KY
(n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/hess/article/viewFile/j.hess.1927024020120301.1593/2750
picture taken from http://www.famouspsychologists.org/psychologists/abraham-maslow.jpg
picture taken from http://i1.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg/450px-Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg.png?w=695
picture taken from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/91/4b/03/914b031c211f563145281d2842b9a135.jpg
picture taken from http://static1.squarespace.com/static/53b1a6e2e4b03918d8ffd1ff/t/545ce369e4b04efe62790262/1415373673525/
picture taken from https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ7RizyBZPYSFikC01Dyauyh5UKKdi8qfFfgq8t_A-t7n29sVHm
picture taken from http://www.metrokids.com/Montessori 1.jpg
picture taken from http://img.scoop.it/K3tz_Vc2xrERzFOQFIgcG4XXXL4j3HpexhjNOf_P3YmryPKwJ94QGRtDb3Sbc6KY
taken from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/hess/article/viewFile/j.hess.1927024020120301.1593/2750
What are They?
You may be asking, "What are learning theories?" "Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning." (taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_theory_(education))
We will look at 5 learning theories. These theories have been arranged according to how they interact with each other. Social Cognitive Theory is a bridge between Behaviorism and Cognitive Theory. And, Cognitive Theory and Constructivism together from the Cognitive Constructivist Theory. Humanism does not follow any of the other theories, but it has been placed across from Behaviorism because those two theories contrast with each other.
Contrasted with
each other

Social Cognitive Theory is a bridge between cognitive theory and behaviorism
Social Cognitive Theory is a bridge between behaviorism and cognitive theory
These two theories have been combined to form the Cognitive Constructivist Theory
(
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
, 2007, p. 344)
(Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 2007, p. 344)
(
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
, 2007, p. 241-242)
Disequilibrium
Equilibration
Assimilation
Accomodation
Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Which is the best learning theory? Let's look at each theory.
These are the five Learning Theories. They provide us with a guideline of how we learn. Which is the best learning theory? That is a debate that has been going on for many years. But, because our students are all different, I think that a combination of these theories may be the best way for a classroom to learn.
Introduction
Learning theory (education). (n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_theory_(education)
(
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
, 2007, Chapter 9 "Behaviorist Views of Learning".)
REFERENCES
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
(2007) Chapter 11 "Motivation and Affect."
Full transcript