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Transcript of Integumentary System
of aging on the skin?
Sebaceous Gland– (oil)
SEBACEOUS GLANDS, (OIL GLANDS) PRODUCE OILY SECRETION KNOWN AS SEBUM THAT SPREADS OUT ALONG THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN AND KEEPS THE KERATIN RICH EPIDERMIS FLEXIBLE AND WATERPROOF.
The production of Sebum is controlled by Hormones.
located everywhere but palms and soles.
for lubrication and protection
Mildly toxic to bacteria and fungi (protection)
can get clogged and lead to acne
Protects and interacts with all organ systems
Changes in skin appearance are used to diagnose disorders in other systems
Importance of the
Hyperkeratosis (excessive production on keratin) leads to psoriasis.
Psoriasis is characterized by affected areas of red bases covered with small, silvery scales that flake off.
Yellow-brown or black pigment
Freckles are pockets of melanin
Moles are abnormal collections of melanocytes.
Produced by melanocytes in stratum germinativum
Stored in transport vesicles (melanosomes)
Transferred to keratinocytes
Found in orange vegetables
Accumulates in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the dermis
Can be converted to vitamin A
Reduced blood supply
Decreased function of hair follicles (become gray or white w/ decreased melanin)
Reduction of elastic fibers resulting in sagging and wrinkling
Decreased hormone levels
Slower repair rate-healing slows
Effects of Aging
Repair of Localized Injuries to the skin:
How does injured skin respond and repair itself?
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
Dermis-the largest part of the skin
THE DERMIS IS THE INNERMOST THICK LAYER OF THE SKIN COMPOSED OF LIVING CELLS.
The Dermis lies beneath the Epidermis and contains BLOOD VESSELS, NERVE ENDINGS, GLANDS, SENSE ORGANS, SMOOTH MUSCLES, AND HAIR FOLLICLES.
The Dermis helps us to control our body temperature:
A. On a cold day when the body needs to conserve heat, the Blood Vessels in the Dermis NARROW. Vasoconstriction
B. On hot days, the Blood Vessels WIDEN, warming the skin and increasing heat loss. Vasodilation
Tiny Muscle fibers attach to Hair Follicles contract and pull hair upright when you are cold or afraid, producing what is commonly called Goose Bumps.
Layers of the Skin
3 Main Parts
3. Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
Structure of Skin
The integument is made up of
cutaneous membrane (skin)
The word INTEGUMENT comes from a LATIN word that means to COVER.
Parts of the Integument
Structure and Function of:
skin, hair, and nails
Caused when the ducts of sebaceous glands become blocked and their secretions accumulate and bacteria colonize the area.
“Whiteheads”-Contain accumulated stagnant secretions.
“Blackheads”-Open to the surface and contain more solid material
Epidermal cells produce Vitamin D which is necessary for calcium to be deposited properly in the bones.
Insufficient vitamin D:
can cause rickets-softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity
buildup of bile produced by liver
and other diseases of pituitary gland
Illness and Skin Color
Skin color depends on melanin production, not number of melanocytes
Melanin protects skin from sun damage
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation:
causes DNA mutations and burns which lead to cancer and wrinkles
Function of Melanocytes
Skin color depends on:
the pigments carotene and melanin
blood circulation (red cells)
Epidermal thinning (more prone to injury)
Decreased numbers of Langerhans cells
Decreased vitamin D3 production
Decreased melanocyte activity (more sensitive to sunlight)
Decreased glandular activity (skin becomes dry)
Effects of Aging
Germinative cells migrate around the wound
Macrophages clean the area
Fibroblasts and endothelial cells move in, producing granulation tissue
The Inflammatory Response
NAILS GROW FROM AN AREA OF RAPIDLY DIVIDING CELLS KNOWN AS THE NAIL MATRIX or NAIL ROOT.
THE NAIL MATRIX IS LOCATED NEAR THE TIPS OF THE FINGERS AND TOES.
During Cell division, the Cells fill with
and produce a tough, strong plate-like nail that covers and Protects the tips of the fingers and toes.
Nails rest on a Bed of tissue filled with
, giving the nails a Pinkish Color.
Nails grow at a rate of 0.5 to 1.2 mm per day, with fingernails growing faster than toenails.
PRODUCE THE WATERY SECRETIONS KNOWN AS SWEAT, WHICH CONTAINS SALT, WATER, AND OTHER COMPOUNDS.
These secretions are stimulated by nerve impulses that cause the production of sweat when the temperature of the body is raised. They help to cool the body.
Types of sweat glands:
eccrine – small and cover the whole body. When skin gets hot it emits sweat (fat, sugars, waste)
apocrine – (odiferous) – in arm pits
-responds to stress
-makes milk in females (modified)
-body odor occurs when bacteria break down sweat
Sudoriferous Glands- (sweat)
Sudoriferous Glands (Sweat)
Sebaceous Glands (oil)
These Glands PASS through the Epidermis and RELEASE THEIR PRODUCTS AT THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN
Glands in the Dermis
Stratum Corneum- outermost
-constantly falls off and is replaced by cells (new sole of foot per week)
-only 2-4 cells thick
-cell death begins here
-have interlocking projections to prevent bacteria from entering
-some new cells form here
Stratum Basale (aka germinativum)
-next to dermis
-active cell division
-forms epidermal ridges (fingerprints)
Layers of the Epidermis
contain large amounts of keratin
the most abundant cells in the epidermis
Cells of the Epidermis: Keratinocytes
The OUTER most layer of Skin is known as the EPIDERMIS.
It is composed of many sheets of Flattened, Scaly Epithelia Cells. (Stratified Squamous Epithelia)
This is a thin outer layer of skin with layers made of mostly DEAD CELLS.
Skin-largest organ in the body (almost 21.5 square feet)
1. SKIN (main organ)
2. HAIR, NAILS, AND NUMEROUS GLANDS (accessory organs)
A. SERVING AS A BARRIER AGAINST INFECTION AND INJURY.
B. HELPING TO REGULATE BODY TEMPERATURE.
C. REMOVING WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE BODY.
D. PROVIDING PROTECTION AGAINST ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FROM THE SUN.
E. PRODUCING VITAMIN D
F. RESPONDING TO STIMULI – SKIN CONTAINS SENSORY RECEPTORS WHICH ALLOW SENSATIONS TO BE TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Skin-Structure and Function
Interactions with the Integumentary System
Figure 5–13 (Step 3)
Fibroblasts produce scar tissue as a result of the large number of collagen fibers produced
Inflammation decreases, clot disintegrates
Repair of Localized Injuries
to the Skin: Step 3
Figure 5–13 (Step 2)
A scab (blood clot) stabilizes and protects the area from the entry of microorganisms.
Microphages patrol damaged area of the dermis
Repair of Localized Injuries
to the Skin: Step 2
Figure 5–13 (Step 1)
The speed and effectiveness of skin repair vary with the type of wound involved:
Example-straight cuts (incisions) heal quickly compared with a deep scrape (abrasion)…..there is more surface area to be repaired with abrasions.
Damage extends through epidermis and into dermis
Mast cells trigger inflammatory response
Repair of Localized Injuries
to the Skin: Step 1
Is BELOW the Dermis.
A LAYER OF FAT AND LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT INSULATES THE BODY AND ACTS AS AN ENERGY RESERVE. (adipose tissue)
location of hypodermic injections
Blood vessels, nerves, etc. also pass through this layer
A.K.A. superficial fascia
HAIR IS PRODUCED BY CELLS AT THE BASE OF STRUCTURES CALLED
Hair Follicles are tube-like pockets of Epidermal Cells that extend into the Dermis.
Individual hairs are actually large columns of DEAD Cells that have filled with
Rapid cell growth at the base of the Hair Follicle in the HAIR ROOT causes hair to grow longer. Hair gets its color from Melanin.
Hair Follicles are in close contact with
. The oily secretions of these Glands help maintain the condition of each individual hair.
Hair protects and insulates the body.
Most individual hairs grow for several years and then fall out.
Most of the cells of the Epidermis undergo rapid cell division (Mitosis)
As new cells are produced, they push Older cells to the surface of the skin.
The older cells become Flattened, Lose their Cellular Contents and begin making KERATIN. (Keritonocytes-most abundant cell type in the epidermis)
KERATIN IS A TOUGH FIBROUS PROTEIN AND FORMS THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF HAIR, NAILS, AND CALLUSES.
Eventually, the Keratin-producing Cells (KERATINCYTES) DIE AND FORM A TOUGH, FLEXIBLE WATERPROOF COVERING ON THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN. Our thickest Epidermis in on the palms and soles.
THIS OUTER LAYER OF DEAD CELLS IS SHED OR WASHED AWAY ONCE EVERY 14 TO 28 DAYS.
THERE ARE NO BLOOD VESSELS
The Epidermis contains MELANOCYTES, CELLS THAT PRODUCE MELANIN, A DARK BROWN PIGMENT.
BOTH LIGHT SKINNED AND DARK SKINNED PEOPLE HAVE ROUGHLY THE SAME NUMBER OF MELANOCYTES, THE DIFFERENCE IN OUR SKIN COLOR IS CAUSED BY THE AMOUNT OF MELANIN THE MELANOCYTES PRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE.
The Amount of Melanin produced in Skin depends on TWO Factors - Heredity and the Length of Time the Skin is Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation (Tanning).
Melanin is important for protection, by absorption of Ultraviolet Radiation from the sun. All people, but especially people with Light Skin, need to minimize exposure to the sun and protect themselves from its Ultraviolet Radiation, which can Damage DNA in Skin Cells and lead to deadly forms of Skin Cancer such as MELANOMA CANCER.
THE SEVERITY OF BURNS RANGES FROM MINOR TO FATAL AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF BURNS IS BASED ON THE EXTENT OF DAMAGE.
FIRST-DEGREE BURN- ONLY THE SUPERFICIAL EPIDERMIS IS BURNED, AND IS PAINFUL BUT NOT BLISTERED. Causes death of Epidermal Cells.
SECOND-DEGREE BURN- DEEPER LAYERS EPIDERMIS ARE EFFECTED, COULD HAVE INFLAMMATION, BLISTERS, AND THE BURNED SKIN IS OFTEN PAINFUL.
THIRD DEGREE BURN- THE ENTIRE EPIDERMIS IS CHARRED OR BURNED AWAY, AND THE BURN MAY EXTEND INTO THE DERMIS. OFTEN SUCH A BURN IS NOT PAINFUL AT FIRST, IF THE RECEPTORS IN THE DERMIS HAVE BEEN DESTROYED.
EXTENSIVE THIRD-DEGREE BURN- POTENTIAL LIFE-THREATENING BECAUSE OF LOSS OF SKIN, WITHOUT THIS NATURAL BARRIER, LIVING TISSUE IS EXPOSED TO THE ENVIRONMENT AND IS SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION AND DEHYDRATION
To estimate burn damage, surface area is divided into multiples of 9
Rule of Nines
Figure 5–13 (Step 4)
Fibroblasts strengthen scar tissue
A raised keloid forms (thick, raised area of scar tissue)
Repair of Localized Injuries
to the Skin: Step 4
Hair - Nails - Skin
Timeline: Several Hours
Timeline: One Week
Timeline: Several Weeks
Skin becomes flushed and red when your body temperature rises because the superficial blood vessels dilate so that the skin can act like a radiator and lose heat
A bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated blood in vessels near the body surface