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Ankara Urban Planning History

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Savaş Zafer Şahin

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Ankara Urban Planning History

Assist. Prof. Dr. Savaş Zafer Şahin
Atılım University Dept. of Politics and Public Adm.
April 2013
Century of Capitals
Above all, 20th century could be defined as a "century of capitals".
Throughout 20th century the number of capital cities increased alongside the number of nation-states.
At the beginning of 1900’s, there were around 40 nation-states and capitals around the world, nearly half of which was in Latin America.
In 2000’s they exceeded well over 200.
Century of Capitals
In this process capital cities became a detrimental part of nation-state building.
For newly established nation-states, establishing a new capital city or tranfroming the existing one in a fashion deemed apropriate with nation-state ideals, meant a reflection of the nation state.
In order to fulfill this challenge, in 20th century many capital cities were established, some existing cities were entitled as new capitals or programs were realized to transform existing capitals.
Why Ankara was proclaimed as the capital, why its been rebuilt?
Reading Ankara's Urban Development in Historical Perspective
Three Waves of Globalization and Ankara
Theorists argue that it is not the first wave of globalization that we are recently living in. There were other waves having their own realities.
Each and every globalization wave had important impacts of Ankara, like any orher city.
In this presentation, urban planning history of Ankara will be evaluated with regards to these waves.
First Wave: 1870 - 1914
The first wave of globalization that started with diminishing transport costs and ease of tariff bariyers created dramatic effects on Ankara, that we even feel today.
The beginning of the wave shook Ankara's economy in Anatolian trade routes. An interesting example is that in the middle of 1800’s, 50 tiftik goats has been taken from Ankara to New Zeland, later exceeding over 5 millon through the end of century.
Under these influence, once a prosperous city, Ankara has been reduced to a middle sized Anatolian town at the beginning of 1900’s.
First Wave: 1870 - 1914
The same wave caused the Ottoman Empire to collapse. The newly established Turkish Republic choose Ankara as its capital city.
Ankara was perceived as a project of the "Republic" and tried to be developed as a perfonification of all republican ideals, symbols and desired citizen life.
A pioneering and examplary urban planning and development process was relized together with many other breakthroughs in other spheres of urban life.
First Wave: 1870 - 1914
Yet, the new capital was based on the dichotomy of Ankara-İstanbul, new and the old. This dichotomy will be reflected in social life thourhgout Republican history.
The major reflection of this dichotomy was burried in deprivations of Ankara. The problems of housing, economic dynamism, employment and daily life came to fore.
A significant portion of the early Republican Cadre has thought that land rent could be used to solve all these problems.
First Wave: 1870 - 1914
We now know that changing the capital is not a fresh issue. Beginning from the middle of 1800’s, Ankara's possibility of being the capital city has been discussed.
Just before the establishment of the Republic, there were proposals of building Ankara as a model town using money generated through land rent and priviledges in infrastructure investments.
Instead, Republican cadre choose an approach involving planned urban development, economic development and cultural change.
Lörcher Plan
Kentsel Yerleşme Alanı: 300 ha.
Kent Nüfusu: 74.500 kişi
Plan Hedef Yılı : 1978
Plan Hedef Nüfusu: 300.000 kişi
First Wave: 1870 - 1914
In economic terms, Forest farm model, Maltepe region of factories, transportation investments and in cultural field, Opera house, parks and exibition halls...
This model produced extraordinary results in short time, using western media's terms (Times Magazine). Yet, the ghost of land speculation has and will always been haunted Ankara till today.
Second Wave: 1945 – 1980
The Era of Cold War started the second wave of globalization.
Under the influence of this wave, Turkey met with multi-party political system, replacing statist structure with liberalism. The dichotomy between Ankara and Istanbul began changing in favor of Istanbul.
Although Ankara sustained its position as the command center of import-substitution policies and a vessel of Turkey' geopolitical importance, Istanbul rose as the capital of industrialization and cultural life.
Second Wave: 1945 – 1980
For Ankara, natin-state discipline for urban development relaxes.
Migration from rural areas to urban areas interrupted planned urban development together with squatter settlements.
Towards 1980’s, Ankara became a town, 60% of which is consisted of squatter settlements, struggling with problems like traffic congestion, air pollution, poverty, unemployment.
Ankara's meaning as the capital city and the symbol of the nation-state became shaken by the rise of Istanbul.
Yücel-Uybadin Planı
Kentsel Yerleşme Alanı : 5.720 ha.
Kent Nüfusu : 455.000 kişi
Plan Hedef Yılı : 1987
Plan Hedef Nüfusu : 750.000 kişi
1960's: Multi-storey development-Flat ownership law
Jansen Planı
Kentsel Yerleşme Alanı : 14.000 ha.
Kent Nüfusu : 1.2 Milyon
Plan Hedef Yılı : 1990
Plan Hedef Nüfusu : 2.8-3.6 Milyon
The main goal of 1990 Ankara Development Plan was to divert urban development that has long continued in north-south direction, towards western corridor, out of topographical bowl shaped structure, in order to solve problems like air pollution and traffic. This policy is still influential on urban macroform.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
At the beginning of 1980’s embracing of neo-liberal policies in Turkey starts to change Ankara.
Large infrastructure projects start. Decentralization, subway and other transportation investments gain pace. First examples of urban regeneration attempts.
Yet, all these transformations became ineffectual again as a result of neo-liberal policies and social transformation start to change Ankara from capital city to something else.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
Neo-liberal policies reflected in Ankara as unplanned urban development. Between 1990 and 2007, Ankara experienced an uncontrolled growth of 17 years.
Partial plans and projects starts an uncontrolled sprawl.
Squatter amendments and transformation of squatter areas into apartments brought about a new and conservative middle class, completely altering the socio-political structure of the city and Turkish Politics.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
This new middle class changes urban life style of the nation state and starts forcing its symbols and life style on the city, creating interesting contrasts all around.
Through the end of 1990’s, Ankara started to experience a new problem of integration to global currents. Being unable to integrate to global system, Ankara became part of a closel political system in Anatolia.
This led to Ankara's loosing further ground against Istanbul and this is further deepened by central government policies. Headquarters of the Republican state institutions and state banks began to be transferred to Istanbul in order to make Istanbul a global ... city.
1997 Arazi Kullanımı
2015 Yapısal Plan Şeması
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
Ankara became a fragmented and polarized city between different social classes.
Empolyment opportunities and economic diversity diminishes. Service sector became dominant sector. Economic dynamics of Ankara is shaped by land and housing speculation transforming citizens into rent-seeking society.
Downtown recedes and shopping malls started to spread all around the city in an uncontrolled fashion.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
Ecological structure and cultural heritage of the Republican era is under threat.
There are representation vacuums in the city. Ankara is governed by city bosses and informal political networks.
Ankara began searching for its new identity.
New settlements are built all around the city devoid of any identity and reference to the past of the city.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
The number and capacity of cultural activities recedes, Ankara's human power is drained by Istanbul.
The number of tourists coming to Ankara diminishes nearly every year.
The urban identity is a very important problem for Ankara. Is it still the pioneering example of Turkish Republic or is it a locality of its own. The city emblem example. A city without an emblem for nearly 20 years.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
Unfinished transportation investments.
Lack of an efficient and effective public transport system, car based system.
Municipal debt highest in Turkey.
Increasing air pollution due to the car ownership and usage.
Brownfields in the center of Ankara, that are to be transformed not into public use.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
Municipalities intolerance for NGO's and even aggressive behaviour against chambers.
Lack of cooperation and partnership. The number of joint research and RD activities between municipalities and universities is very low.
Lack of participatory mechanisms in city governance.
Local political culture based on intolerance and violence.
Third Wave: 1980's and Beyond
The city became a propaganda instrument of extravagant projects.
Billboards and nearly all the city is transformed into a propaganda machine of the local political power, devoiding citizens of the existence of alternatives.
Issues like sustainable development never taken into consideration. City is governed from stiring wheel of a car, from inside a mall or from the trucks that delivers food and coal aid to the poor.
Coming to 2000s, urban development is completely governed through urban development plan modifications and urban renewal projects.
Shopping malls, residences for the upper classes and excess housing production became stadarts for urban development.
Nearly all the vacant land in the fringe of the city is opened for developoment through urban regeneration projects.
91% of all urban renewal projects are on vacant land.!
Kentsel Dönüşümün Planlamanın Yerini Alması
Yoday there are around 100 urban regeneration and renewal projects in Ankara.
Urban planning became a legitimizing process, a formality for realizing urban regeneration and renewal projects.
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