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Condemning Animal Testing in the Modern Age

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Raye Hadi

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of Condemning Animal Testing in the Modern Age

Animal Testing in the 21st Century: Is it Necessary?
Central High School
Halena Hadi and Raye Hadi

The Role of Businesses in the Community

Ethical Questions Arising from the Use of Animals in Medical Research
Ethical Principles to Keep in Mind
Acknowledging the Benefits of Animal Testing in the Past
Lo
Looking to the Future
IN CONCLUSION
Sources for Research
The Basics of Animal Testing
Animal Welfare Act
(established by the USDA)
recognizes animals used as test subjects as
“any live or dead dog, cat, nonhuman primate, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit, or any other warm blooded animal, which is being used or is intended for use for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition purposes or as a pet. Thus excluding birds, rats of the genus Rattus and mice of genus Mus bred for use in research.”

More than 95% of the taxonomic animals employed in biomedical research are not defined as animals in the act.
Requires ensuring
"that animal pain and distress are minimized, including adequate veterinary care with the appropriate use of anesthetic, analgesic, tranquilizing drugs, or euthanasia.”





Reduction

Refinement

Replacement
http://animalresearch.thehastingscenter.org/glossary-of-animal-research- ethics-terms/
http://www.bgsu.edu/content/dam/BGSU/research-economic development/office-research-compliance/documents/animal-care-use/three-r/supplemental-references.pdf
http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/Transparency/Basics/ucm194932.htm
http://nuffieldbioethics.org/report/animal-research-2/ethical-issues/
http://rhchp.regis.edu/hce/ethicsataglance/Nonmaleficence/Nonmaleficence.pdf
https://www.amprogress.org/animal-research-benefits
http://www.medicaldaily.com/animal-testing-long-unpretty-history-247217
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b037j0h8/live
http://www.newsweek.com/alzheimers-petri-dish-could-revolutionize-research-277656
http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpressrelease/161
Three R's of Animal Welfare
As listed by the USDA National Agricultural Library
Use of Animal Testing
Obvious focus on determining safety
Drug Nature
Chemistry
Pharmacology
Toxicology
Measures
Amount absorbed into bloodstream
Breakdown by bodily processes
Rate of disposal
(as stated by the national Food and Drug Administration)


FDA claims animal testing is still necessary in certain areas, but has sought different methods of research and worked to reduce instances of animal testing. We believe businesses should act in the same capacity.

Why?...
Publication by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics outlines two general and five subquestions to consider...
Mainly
What are the definite limits?
How do we weigh the different morally relevant factors within the permitted limits?

In addition
What are the goals of research?
What is the probability of success?
Which animals are to be used?
What effect will there be on the animals used in the experiment?
Are there any alternatives?
Positions
'Anything Goes’
If humans find value in animal testing, then it is acceptable.
'On balance justification’
Research is acceptable if costs are minimized.
'Moral dilemma’ view
While animal testing is not found to be morally acceptable, humans must take the opportunity presented.
'Abolitionist’
No moral justification for animal testing exists.
Non maleficence,
medical/legal terminology to advocate that no individual shall act in a way to inflict evil or cause harm (or a risk of harm) to others, especially if it is unavoidable
Beneficence,
act as to do good

Consequentalism,
the morality of an action is determined based on its consequences

Deontology,
the morality of an action is determined based on its intentions
Credited with
Curing polio
Breast cancer vaccinations
Developing therapies for lung cancer
Developing therapies and cures for HIV/AIDS
Creating cures for heart disease and stroke
Medicines and treatment for diabetes
"...the traditional model for testing drugs which are used for cancer therapy is to use a mouse. But recently, there have been great advances made in the laboratory in growing cancer cells in dishes, and I think it's got to the stage where, in many situations, this provides a much more accurate model than the mouse. Appropriate development of new laboratory tests which are effective and meaningful could reduce the number of animals used by half. It would have advantages for the mice - but it would also have a lot of advantages for people - because this could actually increase the rate at which we develop drugs, and that would be in itself very valuable."
Ian Mackenzie, Professor of Stem Cell Science and Cancer Researcher, Blizard Institute, London, BBC Radio 4 Today Programme, 31 July 2013:
“The question is not, "Can they reason?" nor, "Can they talk?" but "Can they suffer?”
Jeremy Bentham, The Principles of Morals and Legislation
Alternatives
“In Vitro” (test tubes/petri dishes)
Organs on chips
CT, MRI
Computer modeling/simulating
Autopsies
Stem cell and genetic testing methods
Microdosing (volunteers)


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