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Words, Words, Words

Brief description of the English Language; Exploration of Morphemes, Root Words, Affixes, Synonyms, Antonyms, Homonyms, Idioms, Metaphors, and Similies
by

Phoebe Gohs

on 10 November 2015

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Transcript of Words, Words, Words

Words, Words, Words!
History of English
Morphemes
Synonyms, Antonyms, Homonyms
Figurative Language
by Phoebe Gohs
Adjunct Professor
Spring Arbor University

Old English
Middle English
Modern English
Some History
Pre-449 A.D:
Celts speaking Celtic
449 A.D.: Germanic Tribes Invade - origin of King Arthur Tales
Germanic Languages of Anglos and Saxons (from Germany area bring new words)
Old English Words
85% are no longer used (Cultural Diffusion)
Some that remain: child, foot, hand, house, man, mother
Why care?
Anglo-Saxons liked affixes!!
So, they changed word meanings using be-, for-, -ly, etc as we still do today!
FYI:
Vikings contributed:
/sk/, /g/, /k/
"kn" words pronounced both sounds!
Norman Conquest, 1066
William, Duke of Normandy ushered in French as the official Language in England
10,000 French Words added to English
English words were words of the lower class - many are today's "4-letter words"
Some words added:
soldier, government, princess, comedy
Words added from all over the world!
Caxton's Printing Press
Arabic: alcohol
Spanish: chocolate
Dutch: cookie
German: Kindergarten
Chinese: tycoon
Italian: violin
Latin: democracy
Greek: catastrophe
The Great Vowel Shift, 1500
After Printing Presses, spelling became uniform
This meant that vowels no longer corresponded to sounds - NO consistant grapheme-phoneme match
ex: name rhymed with comma before; after it rhymed with game
New grammar rules!
double negatives, double comparatives, superlatives were no more!
Shakespeare wrote:
"The most unkindest cut of all"
because double comparatives had not yet been "outlawed"
definition: smallest unit of speech that has meaning
Bound: Doesn't make sense alone:
re-; in-; -ly; -ing
Free: Makes sense alone
root words
Types of Morphemes
Root Words
Affixes
Prefix
Suffix
(aka: bound morphemes)
added to beginning of words
re
in
pre
un
added to end of words
ing
ed
er
able
Whole Words
Parts of words
"ali" - root of:
alius
alien
alienate
(still bound morphemes)
(free morphemes)
"actus" - root of
actor
activate
react
Create a cluster web from root words on page 218
Synonyms
Antonyms
Homonyms
Use to teach nuance in word meanings
words with same meanings
FYI: Frequently, less formal words are Old English in origin, and formal words are French, Latin, or Greek in origin.
Opposites
homophones
homographs
homographic homophones
spelled the same; sound different
bow; close; lead; minute
sound alike; spelled different
right-write; flea-flee; flower-flour
spelled and pronounced alike
bark; bat; hide
Idioms
Metaphors
Similies
groups of words that have a special meaning
"spill the beans"
"chip off the old block"
Amelia Bedelia
Compare two things
imply that one IS the other
"is" "are" "were" "was"
compare two things
one is "like" the other
"like" "as"
What are three ideas of how you could use dictionaries and thesauri in the classroom that are NOT looking up words and copying definitions
Full transcript