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Words, Words, Words
Transcript of Words, Words, Words
History of English
Synonyms, Antonyms, Homonyms
by Phoebe Gohs
Spring Arbor University
Celts speaking Celtic
449 A.D.: Germanic Tribes Invade - origin of King Arthur Tales
Germanic Languages of Anglos and Saxons (from Germany area bring new words)
Old English Words
85% are no longer used (Cultural Diffusion)
Some that remain: child, foot, hand, house, man, mother
Anglo-Saxons liked affixes!!
So, they changed word meanings using be-, for-, -ly, etc as we still do today!
/sk/, /g/, /k/
"kn" words pronounced both sounds!
Norman Conquest, 1066
William, Duke of Normandy ushered in French as the official Language in England
10,000 French Words added to English
English words were words of the lower class - many are today's "4-letter words"
Some words added:
soldier, government, princess, comedy
Words added from all over the world!
Caxton's Printing Press
The Great Vowel Shift, 1500
After Printing Presses, spelling became uniform
This meant that vowels no longer corresponded to sounds - NO consistant grapheme-phoneme match
ex: name rhymed with comma before; after it rhymed with game
New grammar rules!
double negatives, double comparatives, superlatives were no more!
"The most unkindest cut of all"
because double comparatives had not yet been "outlawed"
definition: smallest unit of speech that has meaning
Bound: Doesn't make sense alone:
re-; in-; -ly; -ing
Free: Makes sense alone
Types of Morphemes
(aka: bound morphemes)
added to beginning of words
added to end of words
Parts of words
"ali" - root of:
(still bound morphemes)
"actus" - root of
Create a cluster web from root words on page 218
Use to teach nuance in word meanings
words with same meanings
FYI: Frequently, less formal words are Old English in origin, and formal words are French, Latin, or Greek in origin.
spelled the same; sound different
bow; close; lead; minute
sound alike; spelled different
right-write; flea-flee; flower-flour
spelled and pronounced alike
bark; bat; hide
groups of words that have a special meaning
"spill the beans"
"chip off the old block"
Compare two things
imply that one IS the other
"is" "are" "were" "was"
compare two things
one is "like" the other
What are three ideas of how you could use dictionaries and thesauri in the classroom that are NOT looking up words and copying definitions