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AP Human Geography Chapter 8: Political Geography
Transcript of AP Human Geography Chapter 8: Political Geography
Lesson 1 E.Q. Where Are States Distributed?
Standards and Objectives
1. Define and explain what the concept of a state is
2. Describe the development of the concept of a state
3. Explain why geographers are concerned with the organization of states
Unit 4: Political Organization of Space
1. Describe the five basic shapes of states
2. Explain the difference between the types of
boundaries that exist between states
3. Analyze the process of gerrymandering and
explain the effects it has on a specific area
1. Describe the effects alliances have on countries
that make them
2. Explain what terrorism is and why it occurs
3. Define Al-Qaeda and give examples of three different
states in the Middle East who support terrorism
1. Describe the difference between a nation-state, multinational state, and multiethnic state
2. Explain how the Soviet-Union broke apart
3. Name and describe at least three countries that still have colonies throughout the world
1. Define the concept of a state, nation, and nation-state.
2. How did the concept of a state develop?
3. Why are geographers concerned with the organization of states?
Ticket out of the Door Ch. 8 Lesson 1
Nighttime satellite image shows the contrasting amounts of electric lighting in South Korea compared to North Korea.
North and South Korea
- China and Taiwan
- Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic)
- Polar Regions: Many Claims
Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 192 in 2006.
United Nations Members
Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.
Colonial Possessions, 1914
Fig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.
The Fertile Crescent
an area organized into a political
unit and ruled by a government
A group that pledges allegiance
to a particular place
A state controlled by a
- Ancient states
- Early European states
- Colonies/ Colonialism
- United Nations
- The United Nations determines if an area can become a country
Lesson 3: Why do Boundaries Between
States Cause Problems?
Ticket out of the Door
Ch. 8 Lesson 3
1. Describe the five basic shapes of states.
2. What is the difference between a physical boundary and cultural boundary?
3. Name three regime types, and explain the effect gerrymandering has on a specific area.
- Describe the five basic shapes of countries and
give an example of each
1. Compact States
2. Elongated States
3. Prorupted States
4. Perforated States
5. Fragmented States
- What is a landlocked state?
Boundaries between states:
- Democracy, Autocracy, and Anocracy
Ticket out of the Door
Ch 8 Lesson 2
1. What is the difference between a nation-state, multinational state, and multiethnic state?
2. Explain how the Soviet-Union broke apart.
3. Name and describe at least three countries that still have colonies throughout the world.
Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.
European Alliances, 1960 & 2007
Lesson 2: Why are Nation-States Difficult to Create?
What is a multiethnic state and
a multinational state?
Does a perfect example of
a nation-state exist in the world?
Does ethnicity matter in the
creation of a nation-state?
Explain how the Soviet Union broke
apart and what states were created
Where do colonies exist in the world today and who controls them?
- Many states joined regional military alliances after WWII because of the emergence of the U.S. and Soviet Union as world superpowers
"Era of two Superpowers"
- What is it?
- When did it end?
- The Warsaw Pact
- The European Union
Lesson 4: Why Has Terrorism Increased?
Ticket out of the Door
Ch. 8 Lesson 4
1. Name and describe three different alliances between countries.
2. Compare and contrast military and economic alliances between countries.
3. List and describe three different states that support terrorism.
World Trade Center, Sept. 11, 2001
Fig. 8-14: Elevations above sea level are depicted in green; those below sea level are in red.
World Trade Center
Topographic Map: Sept. 19, 2001
Fig. 8-15: Ethnic boundaries do not match country boundaries, especially in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The mismatch has affected many of the conflicts in the area.
Ethnic Groups in Southwest Asia
Fig. 8-2.2: Iraq includes about 150 distinct traditional tribes.
Tribes of Iraq
Terrorism: the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands
Who are terrorists and why do they resort to violence?
- In modern times, the term terrorism has been applied to
actions by groups operating outside government control
- Terrorism vs. political violence (p.260)
Who is Al-Qaeda, and what problem do they have with the U.S.?
States in support of terrorism:
- Explain how each supports terrorism, and how
different ethnic groups cause problems in these areas
- What is the difference
between state, nation, and nation state?
One State or Two?
-Describe the differences between
- Explain the difference between physical boundaries and cultural boundaries
Agreements and Organizations
What is the United Nations?
- Explain the challenge in deciding whether each area on the left is a state or not
-Explain the development of the state concept from each area on the left
How did states develop?
A state that contains...
- more than one ethnicity
- multiple ethnicities that agree to recognize each other as nationalities
- No; two relatively close examples
are Denmark and Slovenia, but every
state is somewhat multiethnic
- Absolutely: examples are evident in
Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union
- Baltic states, European states,
Central Asian states, and Russia became independent because they were once a part of the U.S.S.R.
- U.K., France, and U.S. have colonies
- Frontier vs. Buffer zone?
- Physical boundaries can be seen on a map, cultural ones may not be visible
- Explain the difference