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AP Human Geography Chapter 8: Political Geography
Transcript of AP Human Geography Chapter 8: Political Geography
Lesson 1: Where Are States Located?
Standards and Objectives
1. Define and explain what the concept of a state is
2. Describe the development of the concept of a state
3. Explain why geographers are concerned with the organization of states
Unit 4: Political Organization of Space
1. Describe the five basic shapes of states
2. Explain the difference between the types of boundaries that exist between states
3. Describe what boundaries exist within states
1. Explain what terrorism is and why it occurs
2. Give at least three examples of terrorism against the U.S.
3. Define Al-Qaeda and give examples of three different states in the Middle East who support terrorism
1. Explain what the United Nations is and what it does
2. Describe the effects military alliances have on countries that make them
3. Compare and Contrast military and economic alliances
1. Define the concept of a state, and give a real-world example of a place that tests this definition.
2. How did the concept of a state develop?
3. Why are geographers concerned with the organization of states?
Ticket out of the Door Ch. 8 Lesson 1
*State, Nation, and Nation-State*
Nighttime satellite image shows the contrasting amounts of electric lighting in South Korea compared to North Korea.
North and South Korea
- China and Taiwan
- Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic)
- Polar Regions: Many Claims
Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 192 in 2006.
United Nations Members
Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.
Colonial Possessions, 1914
Fig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.
The Fertile Crescent
The concept of dividing the world into states is recent in world
history: around the 1800s
*Explain the development of the state concept*
- Ancient states
- Early European states
- Colonies/ Colonialism
- United Nations
- The United Nations determines if an area can be a country
Lesson 2: Why do Boundaries Between
States Cause Problems?
Ticket out of the Door
Ch. 8 Lesson 2
1. Describe the five basic shapes of states.
2. Explain the difference between the types of boundaries that exist between states.
3. Describe the boundaries that exist within states.
The shape of the state affects the potential for communication and conflict with neighbors, and is a part of its unique identity
- Describe the five basic shapes of
countries and give an example of each
1. Compact States
2. Elongated States
3. Prorupted States
4. Perforated States
5. Fragmented States
- What is a landlocked state?
Boundaries between states:
- Unitary state,
- Federal state
- Give a real-world example
Ticket out of the Door
Ch 8 Lesson 3
1. What is the United Nations and what does it do?
2. What are military alliances, and how do they effect the countries that make them? Give an example of a military alliance between states.
3. Give an example of economic cooperation between states, and contrast military and economic alliances (how they effect countries differently).
Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.
European Alliances, 1960 & 2007
Aerial photos showed the missile buildup in Cuba in 1962
Aerial Photos & Cuban Missile Crisis
Lesson 3: Why States Cooperate With Each Other
The future of the world's current sovereign states is challenged by globalization
- What is the United Nations' role in the world?
- Many states joined regional military alliances after WWII because of the emergence of the U.S. and Soviet Union as world superpowers
"Era of two Superpowers"
- What is it?
- When did it end?
- The Warsaw Pact
- The European Union
is becoming more important than
for two reasons:
(read pg. 259)
Lesson 4: Why Has Terrorism Increased?
Ticket out of the Door
Ch. 8 Lesson 4
1. What is terrorism and why does it occur?
2. List and describe three examples of terrorism against the U.S.
3. Who is Al-Qaeda? Give three different examples of states in the Middle East who support terrorism.
World Trade Center, Sept. 11, 2001
Fig. 8-14: Elevations above sea level are depicted in green; those below sea level are in red.
World Trade Center
Topographic Map: Sept. 19, 2001
Fig. 8-15: Ethnic boundaries do not match country boundaries, especially in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The mismatch has affected many of the conflicts in the area.
Ethnic Groups in Southwest Asia
Fig. 8-2.2: Iraq includes about 150 distinct traditional tribes.
Tribes of Iraq
Terrorism: the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands
Who are terrorists and why do they resort to violence?
- In modern times, the term terrorism has been applied to
actions by groups operating outside government control
- Terrorism vs. political violence (p.260)
Who is Al-Qaeda, and what problem do they have with the U.S.?
States in support of terrorism:
- Explain how each supports terrorism, and how
different ethnic groups cause problems in these areas
- What is the difference?
One State or Two?
Boundaries inside states
- Physical boundary
- Cultural boundary
- Buffer zone?
- Supranational Cooperation-
Agreements and Organizations