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basics in ceramics

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by

Kaycie Peck

on 4 September 2015

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Transcript of basics in ceramics

basics in
ceramics
what
is
CLAY?
Clay is a composition of minerals & small amounts of metal oxides. When mixed with water, it becomes PLASTIC (mold-able). When dried, it holds it shape, & when fired in a KILN, it becomes permanent.

physical stages of clay
greenware:
bisqueware:
types of clay:
earthenware:
stoneware:

glaze fired:
wet clay:
leather hard:
bone dry:
unfired clay
most plastic & malleable to manipulate
sturdy, almost dry, great for scoring & slipping, & detail carving
this is when underglaze (matte) should be applied (& carved out!)
no moisture left in clay, ready to fire, cannot be altered anymore
once fired clay
permanent, no longer alter-able
this is when you add glaze
twice fired clay
the glaze has melted and adheres to object
and strengthens the clay body
what is glaze vs. underglaze?
glaze
underglaze
It is colored slip (watered down clay) applied
before bisque firing to change the color of clay
IT IS NOT SHINY. WILL ALWAYS BE MATTE.
Mainly composed of silica (main ingredient in glass), and other oxides to lower the melting
temperature and color. It is applied after bisque.
Most likely will be SHINY after glaze firing.
porcelain:
This is the type of clay we will be using. Easily molded, can be any color from white, to buff, to red. Very porous, must be glazed to be waterproof. Easily chipped.
Semi-vitreous (glass-like) clay, often used for everyday dishware, because
it can withstand higher temperatures, stronger than earthenware, but not
as strong as porcelain. It can still chip. Often only fired once.
Often called china or fine china (as China was the birthplace of porcelain making). Must be fired at a much higher temp than earthenware & stoneware because it becomes waterproof immediately. Very translucent and strong.
Clay has a crystal-like structure of flat particles.
Because of this structure, WEDGING is important to:
1. remove air bubbles

2. arrange the particles in the same direction
or it might EXPLODE in the kiln
to increase strength & prevent chips/breaks
TOOLS in clay
canvas
plaster table
plastic bag
fettling knife
needle tool
rib
sponge
loop/ribbon tools
rolling pin
wood slats
Full transcript