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Political Parties

Like minded people attempting to win elections.
by

Benham Giess

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Political Parties

Political Parties
Decline of Political Parties
More American's identify as independent
In early 1950s 12% voted "split ticket:
Since 2000 between 20 to 40%

Political Parties
Definition: group of people who seek to control the government by winning elections and holding public office.
Usually the group joins together on the basis of common principles.
A party seeks to implement its own policies and programs
link
the people within the government and its policies
the people can
direct
a government’s policies by choosing one party over the other
provide a convenient
label
to differentiate between the candidates
educate
the public by urging people to vote and provide materials to describe the candidates
resolve conflicts
between groups because the parties must draw support from many groups to win elections
watchdog
—party out of power monitors the party in power
5 Functions of Political Parties
Political Parties in America

Plurality System
- the candidate with the most votes wins.
Winner-take-all - no incentive for finishing 2nd
Winner gets the most votes not necessarily a majority(51%)
Strategic Voting- Voters vote for party with best chance of winning
Wasted Vote - Voters don't support parties not in contention
Spoiler Effect -3rd parties take votes from party they are closest
Policies perpetuate-hard for smaller parties to get on the ballot
Parties are moderately oriented, not ideological
offer positions that are designed to appeal to a fairly wide spectrum of people
when they are perceived as more extreme they lose support
Democrats
Economics
Social Issues
National Security & Foreign Policy
Support's Nationalized Health Care
Typical – big city, North, minority or ethnic group, belongs to a labor union, relatively low income
Liberal Ideology
Shifting from traditional base (New Deal Coalition) and has made gains in the growing affluent middle class and suburbs
2 Halves - Northern Liberals and Southern Moderates
Criticisms
labeled “big spenders” and “bleeding heart”
unorganized, fighting amongst themselves
"democratic firing line is a circle"
government should ensure a fair playing field
Unemployment is the #1 Concern
Keynesian Economics
cut taxes and increase government spending during poor economic times in order to encourage job growth
Raise taxes on rich and those that can “afford” it
increasingly call for “responsible” tax policy
International trade agreements
Some favor globalization – free trade with other nations
Organized labor opposes it because of the threat to American jobs.
1995 --North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)Open borders between US, Canada and Mexico
Since, the party has moved away from free trade agreements
favor a higher minimum wage
favor a policy of developing domestic renewable energy
favors conservation of natural resources together with strong environmental laws against pollution.
Support Marriage Equality
favors a women’s right to choose an abortion
favors stem cell research with federal funding
favors gun control measures
many Democrats (especially rural, Southern, and Western Democrats) favor fewer restrictions on firearm possession
Prefer diplomacy and economic sanctions
Military Force is a last resort
Believe in setting firm deadlines for withdrawal
War and Conflicts
Democrats usually oppose the doctrine of
unilateralism

Democrats believe the United States should act in concert with strong alliances and broad international support -- United Nations.
Build Coalitions
Reduce Military to reduce federal budget deficits
Reinvest savings in American infrastructure & jobs
Critiques of Democrats
places too much responsibility on government solutions higher taxes leads to wasteful government spending
forgot that government should be limited
dependence on government can lead to a corruption of individual spirit and self-reliance, destroy individual initiative, entrepreneurial spirit that lead to our economic growth
Weak on Crime
Diplomacy projects weakness
Definition: major U.S. political party: one of the two major political parties in the United States, formed after a split in the former Democratic-Republican Party under Andrew Jackson in 1828 the party has promoted a social liberal and economically progressive platform
Republicans
Economic Policy
Social Issues
National Security & Foreign Policy
End Government Dependency
Definition:
One of the two major political parties in the United States. Formed under Abraham Lincoln, the party has historically dominated national politics and reflects social and economic conservatism.
Conservative ideology
Typical – suburbs, split-level house, commutes to the city, white-collar job, WASP
Party of Lincoln
Party was organized in 1854 from different 3rd parties based around its opposition to slavery
very successful in national elections
able to attract democrats and independents
Republicans
Republican Coalition includes broad and often competing groups
Fiscal Conservatives – low government spending, low taxes, importance of capitalism, and free market competition
Social Conservatives – advocates traditional morality, family values, and the sanctity of life
Defense Conservatives – in favor of a large military and the prime responsibility of government is to protect its citizens
Broad Coalition
The party opposes a universal health care system, such as that found in Canada or in most of Europe, sometimes referring to it as "socialized medicine"
Unilateralism: Pre-emptive war (Bush Administration)
Supply-Side Economics
cut taxes on individuals and corporations in order to have the private sector have more money to spend and encourage economic growth
Republicans favor free-market policies supporting business and limited regulation.
Prices are what people can afford
people can freely buy or reject goods/service
Supply Creates Jobs
Motivates people to discover new products and improve the lives of individuals and therefore society.
Greed is Good
Free-Market
Characterized by:
an increased emphasis on defense capability
a willingness to challenge regimes deemed hostile to the values and interests of the United States
pressing for free-market economic policies abroad
Neo Conservatives
Believes that America should "export democracy"
spread its ideals of government, economics, and culture abroad
reject U.S. reliance on international organizations and treaties to accomplish these objectives.
justified by a belief that, over the long term, it will reduce the extremism that is a breeding ground for Islamic terrorism.
argue that democratic regimes are less likely to instigate a war than a country with an authoritarian form of government.
Neo-Conservative cont…
Began as an anti-tax movement
The movement has no central leadership but is a loose affiliation of smaller local groups.
Staunch Fiscal Conservatives
cutting back the size of government
lowering taxes
reducing wasteful spending
reducing the national debt and federal budget deficit
adhering to the United States Constitution
wide variety of other issues such as illegal immigration
Unwilling to compromise
Demographics
40% are 55 or older, 79% are White, 61% are men and 44% identify as "born-again" Christians
Tea Party movement
support school choice through charter schools and education vouchers for private schools
generally strongly support constitutionally protected gun ownership rights.
oppose the legal recognition of same sex marriage
oppose abortion on religious or moral grounds
many members actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research
favors capital punishment and stricter punishments as a means to prevent crime.
Favor welfare benefit reductions
Favor Faith-based initiatives.
Most Republicans agree that private groups should help the needy and the disadvantaged, not the government
http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ofbnp
Morality trumps individual freedom
Peace Through Strength
Always advocated a strong national defense
up until recently they tended to disapprove of interventionist foreign policy actions.
supports unilateralism in issues of national security
believing in the ability and right of the United States to act without external or international support in its own self-interest.
wars to disarm and destroy military foes before they can act
Major parties occupy broad moderate positions
Discuss issues major parties seek to avoid
Major parties can’t address specific subgroups w/o risks
Intense new issues
Popular charismatic leader
3rd Parties: Why they appear
Act as a wake up call
Push issues not in the mainstream
Prohibition
Women’s right to vote
End of Child Labor
Force Major Parties to adopt reforms
Open discussion & Challenge Status Quo
3rd Parties: Functions
Rarely last long
Policies adopted by larger party
Can’t win elections
3rd Parties
Third Parties
20th Century Reforms
Political Bosses used material incentives to promote membership
money, jobs, places to live
Party bosses nominated candidates
Distributed favors
20th Century reforms def: changes made to reduce the power of parties and place in the hand of the people
open primary so voters decided candidates
civil service exams to give jobs to qualified candidates not party loyalists
direct election of senators
women's sufferage
Parties Today
Less Important
More Important
Voter get their information directly from the ...
electronic media-TV, Radio, Internet
social networking
professional consultants
direct mail
Candidates rely on their campaign committees
more responsive to personal following than party leadership
National Parties are better funded.
pay for mass media, & professional consultants
a source of campaign funds for candidates
traditionally strong network in congress and society
Still a building block
give candidates labels
a part of decision making process.
have selective opposition to government
insensitive to social needs
contend that the conservatives will rule on the principle that the government will take care of the rich and then the rich will take care of the poor is flawed
“trickle down economics” creates policies that favor the rich
do not deal enough with racism and sexism
Criticisms of Republicans
Two Party System
-An electoral system with two dominant political parties that compete in local, state and national elections. Third parties little chance of winning.
very rare globally
most European democracies are multiparty systems
Republicans have dominated presidency (Rep.-12, Dem.-8 since 1900) and the Democrats have controlled Congress
Two Party System
Reasons the U.S. is a 2 Party System
Progressive Tax Policy
International Trade
Civil Liberties
Military Spending
U.S. spends more on its military than the next 20 countries COMBINED
22% of U.S. Budget is spent on the military
Ideological Parties
Parties that have a view that is radically different from the established parties
i.e. Socialist, Libertarian
these parties have endured
One-Issue
Parties seeking a single policy, usually revealed by their names, and avoiding other issues
i.e. Prohibition, Women’s, Free-Soil
Economic-Protest
Parties, usually based in a particular region, especially farmers, that protest against depressed economic conditions
i.e. Greenbackers, Populist
Factional
Parties that are created by a split in a major party, usually over the identity and philosophy of the major party’s presidential candidate

Types of Third Parties
Full transcript