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Ethnographic Designs

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Elif Pehlivan

on 11 March 2014

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Transcript of Ethnographic Designs

Ethnographic Designs
What are the types of ethnographic designs?
- Realist ethnographies

- Case Studies

- Critical ethnographies

The Key Characteristics of an Ethnographic Design
1) Identify Intent and the Type of Design, and Relate Intent to Your Research Problem

2) Discuss Approval and Access Considerations

3) Use Appropriate Data-Collection Procedures

4)Analyze and Interpret Data Within a Design

5) Write the Report Consistent With Your Design
What is Ethnographic Research & When it is conducted
The types of Ethnographic Research
The key characteristics of Ethnographic Design
The steps in conducting an Ethnography
The evaluation of an Ethnography

What is Ethnographic Research?
Ethnography: ''Writing about groups of people.''

Qualitative research procedures
For describing, analyzing and interpreting a culture-sharing group's shared beliefs, behaviors and language.

Roots: Cultural anthropology
Culture: Everything having to do with human behavior and belief including language, rituals, political structures, etc.
When do we conduct an ethnographic research?
Culture-sharing group that has been together for some time
Capture the ''rules'' of behavior of the group
Families, teachers, fraternity settings
Day to day picture of events
Long term access to this culture-sharing group
Gather extensive field notes, interview people and collect documents
Evaluation of an Ethnographic Research
culture-sharing group
patterns identified
group or case described
description, themes and interpretation
how the culture works from the participants' or researcher's viewpoint
accuracy checked
1) The Realistic Ethnography
* A popular approach used by cultural anthropologists
* Reflects a popular stance taken by the researcher toward the individuals being studied
Objective account of the situation
Written in the third person point of view
Reporting objectively
2) Case Studies
Important types of ethnography, although it differs in several important ways
* Case study researchers may focus on a program, event or activity involving individuals rather than a group
* Being interested in describing the activities of the group instead of identifying shared patterns.
* Being less likely to identify a cultural theme.
exploration of the case
3) Critical Ethnographies
Critical researchers are usually politically minded people
They speak to an audience on behalf of their participants as a means of empowering participants by giving them more authority
They seek to change society
They identify and celebrate their biases in research
They challenge the status quo and ask why it is so
They seek to create a literal dialogue with the participants they are studying

Cultural Themes
A culture-sharing group
Shared patterns of behavior, belief and language
Description, themes and interpretation
Context or setting
Researcher reflexivity
Steps in Conducting an Ethnography

A general position, declared or implied that is openly approved or promoted in a society or group.
Locating a cultural theme in education in an ethnographic research
Cultural Themes
A culture-sharing group
Two or more individuals who have shared behaviors, beliefs ad language
(A group of students in a reading class)
Shared patterns of behavior, belief and language
Shared pattern is a common social interaction that stabilizes as tacit rules and experiences of the group.
The researcher gathers data in the setting where the participants are located and where their shared patterns can be studied.
Emic Data:
information supplied by participants
Etic Data:
information representing the ethnographer's interpretation of the participants' perspectives
Negotiation Data:
information that the participant and the researcher agree to use in a study.
Thematic Data Analysis
Context or Setting
Setting, situation or environment surrounding
the cultural group
Researcher reflexivity
The researcher being aware of hiss or her role or discussing in a way that honors or respects the site and the participants
Why you are undertaking a study?

Which form of design you plan to use?

How your intent relates to your research problem?
Realistic Eth.
: Understanding a culture-sharing group and using the group to develop a deeper understanding of a cultural theme.
Case Study
: Developing an in-depth understanding of a case, such as an event, activity, or process.
Critical Eth.
: Seek to address an inequity in society or schools, plans to use the research to advocate and call for changes.
All three types of designs follow similar procedure
* Receive approval from the institutional review board.
* Identify the type of purposeful sampling that is available for your research
* Identify a gatekeeper who can provide access to the site and participants
* Guarantee provisions respecting the site and individuals.
: Spend extensive time at the site and with the culture-sharing group; Enter the site slowly and build rapport; Emphasize observations and record fieldnotes.
Case Study
: Collect extensive data using multiple forms of data collections.
: Collaborate with participants by actively involving them in data collection; Collect multiple form of data that individuals are willing to provide.
Approval and Access
Identify Intent and Type of Design
Analyze and Interpret
Write the Report
These are typical data analysis and interpretation procedures of qualitative research.
Data Collection
- Developing a description
- Analyzing your data for themes
- Providing an interpretation of the meaning of your information
1) Realistic: Objective, third person point of view

2) Case Study: Detailed description of the case, author may discuss generalizing the findings to other cases.

3) Researchers conclude their report with the "critical" issue.
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