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Jane Xu

on 19 May 2014

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Transcript of Flavonoids

Flavonoids may be able to modulate cell signals and affect growth, proliferation and apoptosis
They are better at this than being antioxidants
This could prevent cancer!
Stimulating Phase II activity => stop the excretion of toxic stuff
Phase II enzymes also help eliminate mutagens and carcinogens
Preserving normal cell cycle regulation

Letting the cells die at their destined times
Inhibiting tumor invasion and angiogenesis

Soluble in water
Basic chemical structure: 15 carbon atoms, 2 benzene rings joined together with a short 3 carbon chain
one of the carbons in the short chain is connected to a carbon on one of the benzene rings (either directly or through oxygen bridge)
forms 3rd middle ring (5 or 6 membered)

Structures of its subtypes:
6 major subgroups: chalcone, flavone, flavonol, flavanone, anthocyanins, isoflavonoids

Neurodegenerative Disease
'Twas a vitamin!
It was called Vitamin P by its Hungarian founder, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, in 1936
The founder actually accidentally put some of this compound in a vitamin C supplement for a patient
It worked better than just vitamin C alone!

That was the beginning of its benefits...

Cardiovascular Disease
If it's so fabulous, where can I find it?
What is such a molecule?
Most common group of polyphenolic compounds in human diet
Naturally occurring plant pigments in fruits and vegetables
It’s the most important plant pigment for flower coloration (yellow, red, or blue petals)
Attracts pollinator animals (Bees)
Protects plant against attacks from fungi, microbes, and insects
A.K.A. “Bioflavonoid”
Its subclasses include:

Is it risky?
No adverse effects with high dietary intakes of flavonoids from plant-based foods
Western population intakes 150-200 mg/day
It’s deeply affected when heated
pH and high processing “kills” the effectiveness of this compound.
Relatively low bioavailability, rapid metabolism, elimination of most flavonoids
When ingested, less than 5% is actually absorbed into body
Quercetin supplements have had negative consequences--nausea, headache, vomiting
Tea extracts--reports of hepatotoxicity (liver damage) in clinical trials
...unless you take too much.

Not much about it is proven!
Remember how I said that Szent Gyorgyi found that it helped absorb vitamin C?
Well…study shows that flavonoids inhibits transportation of Vitamin C into rat cells...
Flavonoids can possibly interact with prescription drugs in a harmful way
inhibits CYP3A4 --cytochrome P450 intestinal drug metabolizing enzyme (found in grapefruit juice)
inhibits P-glycoprotein--decreases absorption of several drugs
anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs inhibits platelet aggregation, theoretically could increase bleeding
A bunch of studies contradict each other
Scientists must figure out what dosage is healthy
Research still must be conducted!
Can someone explain why this picture is relevant?
Thanks for watching!
Jane Xu & Anni Zhang


flavonoids connected to one or more sugar molecules --> glycosides
not connected --> aglycones
flavonoids occur in plants/most foods as glycosides
exception: flavonols

Glycosides reaches the small intestine intact and are absorbed
rapidly metabolized to form methylated (add methyl group), glucuronidated (add glucoronic acid), or sulfated (add sulfate) metabolites
bacteria colonizing in colon play a role in flavonoid absorption/metabolism
bacterial enzymes metabolize flavonoids when they reach the colon
flavonoids are absorbed

Antioxidants stop cell-damaging free radicals and metallic ions
Neutralizes overly reactive oxygen containing cells and prevent those cells from harming other cells.
Protects against/possibly reverses cognitive declines seen with aging
May modify allergens, viruses and carcinogens
Protects cell structures
In some cases, flavonoids may serve as antibiotics and affect viruses
Rare cases: have worked on HIV/AIDS and herpes
May alter immune system cells to minimize unwanted immune responses

Antioxidant=> any substance that prevents/reduces damage caused by reactive O or N species
Effective in vitro (outside the body)
Bind (Chelate) to metal ions to catalyse the production of free radicals
Reactive atoms/molecules typically possessing a single unpaired electron
Very small and negligible in vivo (inside body)
NOT directly caused by the flavonoid itself!
The increasing uric acid levels as the body metabolizes the flavonoids is the reason for these benefits

Green Tea
contains the cancer-fighting flavonoid epigallocatechin gallate (ECGC)
battles cancer at all stages, thwarts chemical carcinogens, suppresses spread of tumor
Chamomile Tea
apigenin (mood-enhancing properties) acts on same parts of the brain as common anti-anxiety drugs
(like those berries!)
quercetin--decreases cancer risk, prevents heart attacks, controls asthma, speeds healing for acid reflux, stave off cataracts
3x more antioxidant potency of an equal volume of green tea/red wine
contains same flavonoid in tea, darker=more flavonoids
Red Wine
“French Paradox”--French eat lots of cheese and high cholesterol foods but don’t have heart attacks because of red wine, which decreases heart disease risk
similar health benefits found in grape juice

(like those carrots!),
(like those peanuts!),

Everywhere! They are ubiquitous compounds. :)

Simply taking flavonoid supplements would deprive you of all the other benefits of food!
You have to eat your fruits and veggies because they provide minerals, vitamins, and fibers!
Rutin: quercetin-3-rutinoside
Proven to stop the formation of blood clots in an animal model of thrombosis
Prevention and treatment of stroke and heart attack
“Approximately ½ of all morbidity and mortality in the US can be attributed to heart attack or stroke” ~Robert Flaumenhaft
Study focused on PID (protein disulfide polymerase)
Inhibition of PID could block thrombosis in mice
Rutin was the molecule scientists found to inhibit the PID
Prevents PID from entering and harming cells
If the video doesn't work: https://www.youtube.com/(DELETE THIS SPACE)watch?v=Je305IRCMBk
Again, flavonoids may be able to modulate cell signals and affect growth, proliferation and apoptosis
Decreasing adhesion in vascular cells - clots won't form
Maintaining arterial relaxation (vasodilation)
Decreasing platelet aggregation -> prevent clotting
A subclass of flavonoids, anthocyanins, help dilate the arteries and counter the build-up of plaque
May help protect blood vessels from rupture or leakage
Flavonoids have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties
Scientists are interested in seeing its neuroprotective potential
If it works, it may become part of a diet plan!
Maybe it can protect the human aging brain from cognitive impairment
ex. dementia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

(or pretending to, at least)
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