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Curriculum Development in the Philippine Setting

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Joy Garingo

on 5 January 2017

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Transcript of Curriculum Development in the Philippine Setting

P R E - S P A N I S H
The
Barangay
played a major role as to how the Early Filipinos were educated. What the Barangay already practiced and believed in were passed down from generation to generation. The curriculum was then
unsystematic
,
unplanned
and
spontaneous
.

When Spain began to colonize the Philippines, the
Spanish Missionaries
played a major role as to how the Filipinos were educated and controlled.
Religion
was the tool Spain wielded to make the Philippines its colony. The Philippine Curriculum then was a lot more structured compared to what the Filipinos had before the Spaniards came. But the emphasis of the Spanish-taught curriculum was more on religion rather than the basic literate skills, science and arts.
After the Filipinos rebelled against Spain, America began to take the reins. The Philippines slowly underwent an
American Acculturation
a
nd this was largely because of the Education the Americans provided. The
Thomasites
played a major role as to how the Filipinos were educated. Contrary to the Spanish Missionaries, the
Americans did not make religious instruction compulsory
. The Philippine Curriculum then evolved into a more organized, systematic and academe & skill focused dynamism.
The growth of the Philippine Curriculum was stunted because of the Japanese Invasion. The Japanese tried to erase every influence of the Americans in the Philippine Society most especially in the Philippine curriculum.
K-12
C U R R I C U L U M
D E V E L O P M E N T
I N T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

L I S T E R L Y N N J O Y C. G A R I N G O
C U R R I C U L U M
( B E F O R E 1 5 2 1 )
S P A N I S H - D E V I S E D
C U R R I C U L U M
( 1 5 2 1 - 1 8 9 6 )
A M E R I C A N - D E V I S E D
C U R R I C U L U M
( 1 8 9 8 - 1 9 3 5 )
C U R R I C U L U M D U R I N G
( 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 4 6 )
T H E C O M M O N W E A L T H
J A P A N E S E - D E V I S E D
C U R R I C U L U M
( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 4 )
C U R R I C U L U M D U R I N G
( 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 4 6 )
T H E L I B E R A T I O N P E R I O D
C U R R I C U L U M D U R I N G T H E
( 1 8 9 6 - 1 8 9 9 )
P H I L I P P I N E R E V O L U T I O N
C U R R I C U L U M D U R I N G
( 1 9 4 6 - P R E S E N T )
T H E P H I L I P P I N E R E P U B L I C
C U R R I C U L U M I N T H E
N E W S O C I E T Y
( 1 9 7 2 - P R E S E N T )
( 2 0 1 2 - P R E S E N T )
F I L I
P I N O
S
"the inhabitants were a civilized people, possessing their system of writing, laws and moral standards in a well organized system of government. They did not have an organized system of education as we have now..."
-Fr. Pedro Chirino, a Spanish Priest
& Historian; Relación de las Islas Filipinas
(1604)
A R
A B
I A
I N
D I
A
I N D O
C H I N A
C H
I N
A
B O
R N
E O
T H E S P A N I S H
C U R R I C U L U M
R E L
I G I
O N
W R I
T I N
G
R EA
DI N
G
"the curriculum for boys and girls was aimed to teach them to
serve and love God
,
discover what is good and proper
for one's self and
enable the individual to get along with his or her neighbors
..."
-Fr. Modesto de Castro, author of Urbana
and Felisa (1877)
haler besh
#koolkids
besh, I'm sad. I wanna make read
Cartilla, Caton & Catecismo
not make tahi, na. maayu pa
ang boys. y females mn ta ui :(
besh, makabasa na ta #finally
pero so sad, di ta ka smile
during photoshoots
besh, ngano na
si maam?
'i wanna have tanned skin
class huhu'
besh, speak
english pls
hu u?
ani ni sha pag
pose bro
heheh
#firstfiercefilipino
guys, it's ok to smile heh
tupac man ko bro
sideview is kool
slayyyyyy
it's kinda cold u guys
E L E M
E N T A
R Y
S E C O
N D A R
Y
T E R T
I A R
Y

consists of 4 Primary years and 3 Intermediate years. Body and Mental Training were given to each student. As each student progressed, the subjects taught become more complicated and advanced.
Teacher's Training Curriculum was established in Normal Schools (Cebu Normal University, Silliman University, Philippine Normal University, Far Eastern University), so that Filipino Teachers could teach the Filipino children and slowly replace the Thomasites.
The Philippines was then beginning to prepare for its independence from America(
Tydings-Mcduffie Act
) and the expansion & reformation of the Philippine Curriculum began in this period. Filipino Teachers were empowered to improve the curriculum and as a result, content-rich and culture-specific courses were added.
Patriotism
was then also considered as an important factor in the Philippine Curriculum.
C O M M O N W E A L T H
A C T 5 8 6
Educational Act of 1940
- approved on August 7, 1940
- reorganized the Elementary School System by eliminating Grade 7(Section 4)
- introduced the Double-Single Session for Elementary Students(Section 6) & Civic Training(Section 2)
E X P A N S I O N O F T H E
P H I L I P P I N E
C U R R I C U L U M
-The Filipino Teachers who were trained by the Americans began introducing courses that were taught in American schools.
-Secondary Normal Schools were elevated to the Collegiate Level by the Bureau of Education.
8 Regional Normal Schools were then formed
After the war, the Philippines started to recuperate and began modernizing. Likewise, the Philippine Curriculum started to gain some traction. More Filipino Educators began to experiment on the different types of curriculum and researches were then conducted to find out which type of curriculum would best suit the Filipino learners. But despite these efforts, the Philippine Curriculum gained only little expansion.
Research then became more prevalent and it greatly helped in facilitating the expansion and improvement of the Philippine Curriculum. The largely Traditional curriculum of the Philippines then became more colored with the Progressivist's methodology and mindset. Filipino Resources, Culture & Approaches were now melded into the education system.
The late President Ferdinand V. Marcos issued the Educational Development Decree of 1972 which greatly aided the development of the Philippine Curriculum. It ensured the constant responsiveness of the schools to the needs of the New Society and heavily articulated the need to teach Nationalism, Patriotism, Moral Values and Relevant Academic Courses.
As the Philippines continue to witness the result of all the underpinnings, research and happenings, internationally and locally, a more developed and globally competitive curriculum would naturally make itself known. The implementation of the K-12 system is a product of the need to compete with international standards.
A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Survival
Conformity
Enculturation
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Informal Education
Practical Training
Theoretical Training
E D U C A T I O N A L M E T H O D S:
Show and Tell
Observation
Trial and Error
Imitation
Suggestion
C U R R I C U L U M :
More Vocational than Technical
Code of Kalantiao & Maragtas
Solidarity of the Family
Modesty of Women & Valor of Men
Belief in Bathala
Obedience & Respect for the Elders
M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N
Alibata
E D U C A T O R S:
People from the Barangay
Babaylan
Tribal Tutors
Parents
A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Promote Christianity
Promotion of Spanish language • Imposition of Spanish culture
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Formal Education
Religious education
Catechism
Doctrine
Vocational Course
E D U C A T I O N A L M E T H O D S:
Dictation
Memorization
Theater presentation
C U R R I C U L U M O R G AN I Z A T I O N :
Subject Organization
M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N :
Spanish
E D U C A T O R S :
Spanish Missionaries
T Y P E O F S C H O O L S :
Parochial or Convent Schools
E D U C A T I O N L E V E L S:
Basic (Entrada, Acenso, Termino)
Tertiary
Secondary


C U R R I C U L U M :
Christian Doctrine
Values
History
Reading & Writing in Spanish
Mathematics
Agriculture
Etiquette
Singing
World Geography
Spanish history
A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Teach Democracy
Separation of Church & State
Westernization
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Formal Education
Democratic Education
E D U C A T I O N A L M E T H O D S:
Socialized recitation
Participation
Debate
Games/Play
C U R R I C U L U M O R G AN I Z A T I O N :
Separate-Subject Organization
M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N :
English
E D U C A T O R S :
Thomasites
Soldiers
T Y P E O F S C H O O L S :
Public Schools
E D U C A T I O N L E V E L S:
Elementary(Primary, Intermediate),
Secondary
Tertiary


C U R R I C U L U M :
GMRC
Civics
Hygiene and Sanitation
Geography
English Grammar & Composition
Reading & Spelling
Science
Mathematics
Intensive Teaching of Geography
A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Develop moral character
Civic Conscience
Vocational Efficiency
Preparation for Incoming Independence
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Formal Education
Vocational Education
E D U C A T I O N A L M E T H O D S:
Memorization
Recitation
Socialized Recitation
C U R R I C U L U M O R G AN I Z A T I O N :
Separate-Subject Organization
M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N :
Filipino
E D U C A T O R S :
Filipino Teachers
T Y P E O F S C H O O L S :
Public Schools
Private Schools
E D U C A T I O N L E V E L S:
Elementary(Primary, Intermediate),
Secondary
Tertiary


C U R R I C U L U M :
Farming
Trade
Business
Domestic Science
Teacher's Collegiate Education
A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Eradicate Reliance on Western Nations •Love of Labor
Military Training
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Formal Education
Vocational Training
E D U C A T I O N A L M E T H O D S:
Stressed Dignity of Manual Labor •Emphasis on Vocational Education
Lectures with emphasis on Japanese Culture and Sovereignity

M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N :
Nihongo
E D U C A T O R S :
Japanese Imperial Tutors
T Y P E O F S C H O O L S :
Public Schools
E D U C A T I O N L E V E L S:
Elementary(Primary, Intermediate),
Secondary
Tertiary


C U R R I C U L U M :
Filipino & Tagalor
Philippine History
Character Education to Filipino with emphasis on love for work and dignity of labor
Agriculture
Medicine
Fisheries
Engineering
Nihongo
A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Citizenship
Morality
Democracy
Industry
Family Responsibility
Helping the community
Cultural Heritage for Youth
Understanding of other nations
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Formal Education
Vocational Training

M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N :
Filipino/Vernacular
T Y P E O F S C H O O L S :
Public Schools
Private Schools
E D U C A T I O N L E V E L S:
Elementary(Primary, Intermediate),
Secondary
Tertiary


N E W D E C L A R A T I O N S :
Academic freedom
Religious instruction in the public schools is optional
creation of scholarships in the arts, sciences and letters was for specially gifted citizens and those that are unable to afford the cost of college education.
Compulsory Flag Ceremony
Restoration of Grade VII
C U R R I C U L U M :
Moral Character
Vocational Efficiency
Productivity
Complete and Adequate system of Public Education
Subjects change with the changing time and needs of human beings
A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Appreciation of Philippine Culture
Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Character Education
Usage of Filipino Books and Literature
Citizens' Increased Self Awareness
Bilingualism
Greater Skill Specialization
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Formal Education
Vocational Training

M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N :
Filipino/Vernacular
Other Foreign Languages
T Y P E O F S C H O O L S :
Public Schools
Private Schools
Trade Schools
E D U C A T I O N L E V E L S:
Elementary(Primary, Intermediate),
Secondary
Tertiary


A I M S O F E D U C A T I O N:
Love of country
Duties of Citizenship
Develop Moral Character
Self – discipline
Vocational Efficiency
T Y P E O F E D U C A T I O N:
Formal Education
Vocational Training

M E D I U M O F I N S T R U C T I O N :
Filipino/Vernacular
Other Foreign Languages
E D U C A T I O N L E V E L S:
Elementary(Primary, Intermediate),
Secondary
Undergraduate Studies
Graduate Studies


Presidential Decree 6-A
Educational Development Decree of 1972
achieve and maintain social and economic development progress
assure maximum participation of all the people
Presidential Decree 6-A
Educational Development Decree of 1972
Provide for a broad and general education
Attain his potential as human being.
Enhance the range and quality of individual.
Acquire the essential educational foundation.
Train the nation’s manpower in the middle level skills.
Develop the high level professions for leadership of nation.
Respond effectively to changing needs
The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
A I M S:
Strengthening Early Childhood Education (Universal Kindergarten)
Making the Curriculum Relevant to Learners (Contextualization and Enhancement)
Ensuring Integrated and Seamless Learning (Spiral Progression)
Building Proficiency through Language (Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education)
Gearing Up for the Future (Senior High School)
Nurturing the Holistically Developed Filipino (College and Livelihood Readiness, let Century Skills)
Full transcript