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War in Eastern Ukraine

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Thainá de Bragança

on 2 January 2016

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Transcript of War in Eastern Ukraine

War in Eastern Ukraine
Donbass Region
Complaint by a Ukrainian deputy in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни) about Volya Organization, 2012: “Within the Ukrainian territory, with the support, direct participation and on the premises of the U.S. Embassy in Kiev, the “TechCamp” project was first deployed and through which preparations have been made for a civil war in Ukraine. The “Techcamp” project prepares specialists in information warfare and the discrediting of state institutions using modern media recruiting potential revolutionaries for organizing protests and the toppling of the state’s order. The project is currently overseen under the responsibility of the U.S. ambassador to Ukraine. U.S.A specialists explained how Internet technologies can be used for targeted manipulation of public opinion as well as to activate protest potential to provoke violent unrest on the territory of Ukraine by polarizing the population and triggering infighting (examples: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia)”. According to him, by that time, 300 people were active throughout Ukraine.
Before the Euromaidan
Thainá de Bragança
UN resolution of December 21, 1965: Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of Their independence and Sovereignty.
No State has the right to intervene, directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the internal or external affairs of any other State. Consequently, armed intervention and all other forms of interference or attempted threats against the personality of the State or against its political, economic and cultural elements, are condemned.
No State may use or encourage the use of economic, political or any other type of measures to coerce another State in order to obtain from it the subordination of the exercise of its sovereign rights or to secure from its advantages of any kind. Also, no State shall organize, assist, foment, Finance, incite or tolerate subversive, terrorist or armed activities directed towards the violent overthrow of the regime of another State, or interfere in civil strife in another State.
Every State has an inalienable right to choose its political, economic, social and cultural systems, without interference in any form by another State.
President Viktor Yanukovych decided not to sign an agreement with the European Union.
There was a conference to sign the association and the free-trade agreement with the EU;
Switching from Russia to EU, would cost to Ukraine 160 billion euros;
Additional cost of, at least, 20 billion euros for upgrading Ukraine’s economy to match with the European Union standards;
Ukraine would lose 60% of exports to Russia.
The Euromaidan (November 21st 2013)
After Yanukovych refused to sign the agreement with the EU, the first protests began.
The Euromaidan (Євромайдан) was a wave of ultranationalists protests to demand closer integration with Europe.
Who was behind the Euromaidan?
USA
Arseniy Yatsenyuk
Pravy Sektor (Right Sector): A violent organization with neonazi tendencies. They were on the front line leading the protests.
Svoboda
World War II: why is it important?
The West of the country is mainly populated by ethnic Ukrainians, many of those grandfathers fought in the side of Germany in the WWII. The East and the South of Ukraine speak Russian and during WWII both ethnic Russians and Ukrainians fought in the Red Army for the Soviet Union. And that’s why the war time loyalty remains a political flash point in modern Ukraine.
Anti-maidan
At the same time people were protesting for integration with Europe, in Mariinsky Park a group called “anti-maidan” was declaring their support to the existing state power.
Unconstitutional ousted
There was a poll in the Ukrainian Parliament and President Viktor Yanukovych was illegally ousted from office.
According to Ukrainian Constitution, it’s necessary three-fourths majority in the Verkhona Rada to depose the President. The quorum was insufficient (ten votes less than necessary) and he was ousted from the office anyway.
The opposition declared that he had disappeared, although, he just moved from Kiev to Kharkiv. While he was in Kiev, a man with an automatic rifle shot at his direction.
Oleksandr Turchynov assumed the office as interim.
Petro Poroshenko was elected in May 2014.
Violations to human rights


Pravyi Sektor militants took the building headquarters of the Party of Regions in Kiev. They ferociously murdered two men. Locked one of them in the basement and threw over there a Molotov cocktail. The causa mortis was suffocation and burns. The other man was beheaded and had his corpse was thrown in the staircase. They stripped the women who were inside the building, leaving them half-naked. Their organization symbols were drawn on the women’s bodies and they were sent to the street.

The first secretary of the municipal committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine in Lvov, P. Vasilko, was captured and subjected to torture by the supporters of the Euromaidan. According to eyewitnesses, they stuck needles under his nails, run a stick through his right leg, broke some of his ribs, his nose and a bone of his face. His family was threatened as well. After the torture, Vasilko was taken to the hospital and then, to outside of Ukraine.



February 27, 2014. The director of the Ukrainian information agency "GolosUA" (The Voice of Ukraine), Oksana Vaschenko asked the competent authorities for protection, as an attempt to prevent a possible seizure of the agency’s office and safeguard its journalists from the attack of extremist organizations. However, in early March 2014, the "GolosUA" office was seized by Pravyi Sektor militants. A considerable part of the employees was forced to take unpaid leave, a smaller part moved to another office, protected from conspiracy. Ultranationalists blamed the Agency for "misrepresentation of information about people's revolution."

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
Article 19
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 19 December 1966

Article 7. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.

There was a poll in the Ukrainian Parliament and President Viktor Yanukovych was illegally ousted from office.
According to Ukrainian Constitution, it’s necessary three-fourths majority in the Verkhona Rada to depose the President. The quorum was insufficient (ten votes less than necessary) and he was ousted from the office anyway.
The opposition declared that he had disappeared, although, he just moved from Kiev to Kharkiv. While he was in Kiev, a man with an automatic rifle shot at his direction.
Oleksandr Turchynov assumed the office as interim.
Petro Poroshenko was elected in May 2014.

Unconstitutional ousted
Violations committed by the Ukrainian government (Azov Battalion – National Guard of Ukraine, Ukrainian Armed Forces)
The armed forces of a Party to a conflict consist of all organized armed forces, groups and units which are under a command responsible to that Party for the conduct of its subordinates, even if that Party is represented by a government or an authority not recognized by an adverse Party. Such armed forces shall be subject to an internal disciplinary system which, inter alia, shall enforce compliance with the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict. (Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, of 8 June 1977, 1125 U.N.T.S. 3, Art 43.).
Azov (Азов)
The Azov Regiment (Ukrainian: Полк Азов) is a far right neo-Nazi all-volunteeAzocr infantry military unit forming part of military reserve of National Guard of Ukraine. The unit is based in Mariupol in the Azov Sea coastal region. It saw its first combat experience recapturing Mariupol from pro-Russian separatists’ forces in June 2014. Initially a volunteer militia, formed as the Azov Battalion on 5 May 2014 during the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, Azov has since been incorporated into and is armed by Ukraine's Ministry of Internal Affairs. All members of the unit are under contract of National Guard of Ukraine.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 19 December 1966
Article 6: Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

Article 7: No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.

Svoboda
Odessa Massacre
Discrimination for ethnic and linguistic reasons, xenophobia and racial extremism. Incitement of racial hatred.


International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 19 December 1966

Article 20. 1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1995)

Article 4 : The Parties undertake to guarantee to persons belonging to national minorities the right of equality before the law and of equal protection of the law. In this respect, any discrimination based on belonging to a national minority shall be prohibited.

December 7th, 2013
Flyers signed by the Svoboda Party were distributed in the Kiev subway, encouraging aggression towards the Jews, and also demanding their expulsion from "the streets of our country".
Aleksandr Muzychko, Pravyi Sektor coordinator in Western Ukraine, recorded and broadcasted a video on the internet at which he seeks support from the population to "clean up Ukraine and Crimea" of its Russian-speaking inhabitants.

March 5th, 2014
Casualities
Casualities
At the beginning of June 2015, the Donetsk region’s prosecutors reported 1,592 civilians had gone missing in government-controlled areas, of which 208 had been located. At the same time, a report by the United Nations stated 1,331–1,460 people were missing, including at least 378 soldiers and 216 civilians. 345 unidentified bodies, of mostly soldiers, were also confirmed to be held at morgues in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast or buried.In all, as of mid-August, 846 people were missing according to the government. The separatists also reported 400 missing on their side. At the end of September, a government official put the number of missing soldiers at 271.
Casualities
Foreign volunteers have been involved in the conflict fighting on both sides. Beside the estimated 400–500 Russian soldiers killed while fighting as part of the rebel forces, at least 103 foreigners died on the Ukrainian side. One of those killed was the former Chechen rebel commander Isa Munayev. Two Kyrgyz and one Georgian have also been killed fighting on the separatist side.
1,177,748 Ukrainians internally displaced and 763,632 fled abroad (mostly to Russia).

International and non-international armed conflicts
The Statute of the International Criminal Court defines war crimes as, inter alia, “serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict” and “serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict not of an international character”
"Making the civilian population or individual civilians, not taking a direct part in hostilities, the object of attack. In addition to the practice mentioned above, there are numerous examples of national legislation which make it a criminal offence to direct attacks against civilians, including the legislation of States not, or not at the time, party to Additional Protocol I"
Novorossiya
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