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Forensic Science

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Brittany Galloway

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Forensic Science

Anna Birchmore
&
Brittany Galloway Historical Timeline Marcello Malpighi Early Chinese He was the founder of modern anatomy

Noted the ridges and rounds in our fingerprints

A layer of skin is named after him: "Malpighi" layer Carl Wilhelm Scheele Discovered how to change arsenious oxide into aresenious acid Valentin Ross Discovered a more precise way of finding arsenic Matheiu Orfila Father of forensic toxology

1814: Published Treatise on the detectection of poisons. William Nichol Developed the first polarizing light microscope James Marsh English Chemist

1836: developed a test for the presence of arsenic in tissues, known as the Marsh Test Alphonse Bertillon Hans Gross Dr. Karl Landsteiner Dr. Leone Lattes Albert Osborn Edmond Locard Dr. Walter McCrone Col. Calvin Goddard Sir Alec Jeffreys Frye Standard Daubert Ruling Forensic Science 700's : Discovered fingerprints

1248: "Hsi Duan Yu" a book that described how to tell drowning from strangulation Fingerprints can now be used to solve crimes and set innocent people free.

The book helped differentiate between drowning and strangulation. Helped with the idea of knowing the cause of death. 1628-1694 1742-1786 1806 1787- 1853 Helped further the knowledge of what we know now about fingerprints. No person in the world has the same fingerprint! Gave another possibilty for a cause of death, and how you can check for it. 1828 1794- 1846 "Nicol Prism" 1853- 1914 French Scientist

1879: devised first system of person ID using a series of body measurements 1847-1915 1893: Published the first treatise on applying science to criminal investigation 1868- 1943 Immunologist

1901: published his discovery of the human ABO blood group system This enabled blood transfusions to be performed. Italian Scientist

1915: devised a procedure by which dried bloodstains could be grouped a A, B, AB, or O. 1887-1954 1858-1946 American Scientist

1910: published the book, "Questioned Documents" 1877-1966 1910: set up the first forensic lab in Lyon, France

Founder and director of the Institute of Criminalists at the University of Lyons

Formulated the Locards Exchange Principle: When a cross-transfer of evidence occurs, the exchange can link the criminal to the crime scene. Helps to better analyze evidence, such as: hair, clothing fibers, etc. Father of Microscopy
Revolutionized the understanding and use of the light microscope for material analysis
Developed numerous acesssaries, techniques, and methodologies for the light microscope Developed the Comparison microscope

Refined techniques of determining if a gun had fired a specific bullet His work contributed to the study of ballistics.

His microscope made deciphering evidence a lot easier. (bullets, fingerprints) 1891-1955 1916-2002 1950 Father of DNA fingerprinting
Developed techniques for DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling
1984: ginetic fingerprints was born Assists police detective work, and helps resolve paternity and immigration disputes 1923 1993 Rule of evidence regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses testimony during United States federal legal procedures Used to determine the admissibilty of an experts scientific testimony Helps out in the court room, helps to make sure the testimony is valid. Helps to group people based on their blood types which narrows down the possibilities of who it could be. Devised the first crime scene kit that is still used today The science community decides what is admissible Developed another possibility for cause of death Expanded upon Scheele's discovery Made it easier to determine the prescence of arsenic Expanded on Scheele and Ross's discoveries Helps to determine culprit by using scientific principles. Criminals can be accused of being at the scece based on fingerprints or hair left. Book became a primary resource for document examinations Made examining evidence much easier The Judge decides what is scientific and what is not
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