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Transcript of Bhutto's Era
A little about the Leader
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
born in Larkana on 5th January 1928
Bhutto completed his early education from Bishop High School Karachi
Senior Cambridge from Cathedral High School Bombay in 1946
went to America after 1947 and got admission in Southern California University Los Angles USA - Bachelors in political science in 1950
took admission in Oxford University UK and got the degree of Masters in 1952
In 1953, he returned to Pakistan
he had been the head of different ministries in Ayub’s cabinet including ministries of commerce, industry and information.
In 1962, he became the foreign minister of Pakistan.
He resigned from the cabinet of Ayub Khan after Tashkent agreement (with India) in 1966 due his differences with Ayub Khan..
In the same year, he went abroad
Creation of PPP
On 10th December 1967, the foundation of PPP was laid in a meeting at the house of one of the Bhutto’s political friend Dr.Mubashar Hassan in Gulberg Lahore.
Bhutto was a feudal lord from background but his politics was centered on socialism. He based his party manifesto on four things:
1. Islam is our religion
2. Socialism is our economy
3. Democracy is our politics
4. Sovereignty belongs to people in this world
The famous slogan:
“Roti, Kapraa aur Makaan”
According to the results:
Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman’s Awaami League got a clean-sweep majority in East Pakistan with 160 out of 162 seats and appeared as single largest party in Electoral College (National Assembly).
On the other hand, in West Pakistan, Bhutto’s PPP took majority with 87 seats and came as second largest political party in Electoral College (National assembly).
Failure of Bhutto-Mujib Dialogue and 1971 War
Challenges to Bhutto Government
“Whoever goes to East Pakistan, I’ll break his legs”.(18thFebruary,1970, addressing a session at Minar-e-Pakistan). - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
Bhutto branded Dhaka as Slaughter house
A liberation army Mukti Bahini formed by Bengali military, paramilitary, and civilians used guerrilla warfare tactics to fight against the West Pakistan army.
India provided economic, military and diplomatic support to the Mukti Bahini rebels, leading Pakistan to launch Operation Chengiz Khan, a pre-emptive attack on the western border of India which started the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
1) Indian Military Occupation
2) Issue of military prisoners
3) Behavior of Military Generals
4) Social and ideological Stratification
5) Separation of East Pakistan
6) Bengali officers
New health policy
1. The doctors had been instructed that they would write a prescription instead of giving medicine and receive their fee.
2. Names and prices of all the medicines had been changed.
3. 4-10 medical colleges were established in the country and the quantity of students was increased.
New educational reforms
1. All the colleges and schools were taken under government’s custody from 1st September and 1st October, consecutively.
2. University grants commission was established which provided fund to the universities.
3. Education became free up to metric, from October, 1974.
4. National book foundation was established to unify the course in provinces
1. On 2 Jan, 1972 all the industries were took under government’s custody by an ordinance.
2. The industries which were established by foreign investment were not took under government custody.
3. There was a great loss to the national industry by this action.
Banking and bema policy
1. On 9 March, 1972 all the bema companies were taken under government’s custody by an ordinance.
2. Estate Life Insurance Corporation was established to improve the economic condition in Pakistan
3. All the private banks were taken under government’s custody.
1. 150-500 acre canal land and 300-1000 acre rainy land, was fixed for ownership limit.
2. Extra lands were divided in cultivators free of cast, by withdrawing from the landlords.
3. The government had divided official land in cultivators.
4. The land was confiscated whose land was on the defense line.
5. 100 acre land limit was fixed, which was given after the retirement.
6. The cultivators had given the right to sale their land.
7. It decided the duty of owner to provide seeds.
8. Practically, these reforms were neither applicable for the Bhutto family nor for the feudal lords of Sindh.
2nd Agricultural Reforms (1977)
1. 100 acre canal land and 150 acre rainy land, was fixed for ownership limit.
2. The owners of land less than 12 acre, was write-off from tax.
3. The tax was applied on 25 acre land.
1. Trade union was established.
2. Bonus was given to the workers.
3. Monthly salary was fixed.
4. Social security was given.
5. Residential flats were given.
6. Funds were announced for workers.
7. 500 rupees were fixed for the burial of worker.
Devalue of currency
1. The foreign investment was increased in Bhutto regime.
2. As a result, inflation rate also increased in the country.
Milestones of Bhutto
Constitution of 1973
Pakistan Nuclear Program
Decline of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
Enforcement of Martial Law
On February 6, 1979 Bhutto was finally convicted in the Murder Case of Nawab Mehmood Ahmed Khan, father of Ahmed Raza Qasuri (a prominent lawyer).
On 4th April 1979, the Ex prime Minister was hanged at 2 am in Central Jail Rawalpindi. He was buried in a Village Cemetery at Garhi Khuda Bakhs
Qasim Mohammad Qasmi