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Nervous System

Science Presentation on the Nervous system
by

Mei Li

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of Nervous System

By: Brekhna, Jennifer, Kelly, Mei, Robert Nervous System The Human Body: Nervous System How much do you know about the nervous system? This part of the nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It is protected by bones to prevent physical damage, and is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid to cushion from injuries, transport chemicals, and removes waste. This system connects the different areas of the body to the Central Nervous system. It relays the internal and the external environments to the brain, and sends information from the brain to the body. The Peripheral Nervous System Nerves are made up of a bundles of neurons, each surrounded by connective tissue. Neurons are the basic component of nerve tissues, which are long, thin cells with fine branches capable of conducting electrical impulses, and contains Axons and Dentrites. Axons carry signals away from the body, and dentrites carry signals towards the body. Nerves and Neurons The nervous system is the control panel of your body, much like a computer. It regulates body functions and sends information to help the body function. The muscles of the body, and almost all other organ systems depend on it to operate. For example, the digestive system digests without us knowing, because our nervous system tells our stomach to digest it. The nervous system sends, receives and processes electrochemical signals to the nerves throughout our body upon which our organs and muscles rely on in order to function. The Central Nervous System The nervous system is a human system that senses the environment and coordinates appropriate responses. It is made up of the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves. It is a delicate network of nerves that carries messages around the body and is responsible for the millions of signals corresponding to feelings, thoughts and action. The spinal cord receives information from the skin, joints, and muscles of the body. It then passes this information onto the brain, which uses this to react and send out appropriate instructions. These are divided into three groups: Ones that control the voluntary muscles, ones that carry information from the sensory organs to the brain, and ones that regulate involuntary actions, such as breathing and body temperature. If the nerve consists of only dentrites, it is considered sensory. If they are only axons, it is considered motor. If they have both, then it is a mixed nerve. Communication, Coordination, Perception Importance of The Nervous System Diseases and Disadvantages There are a number of disorders related to the nervous system Migraines are a form of headache, with pain typically limited to a specific region of the head and accompanied by neurological symptoms, this is an example of a nervous system disorder. Epilepsy is a nervous system disorder caused by bursts of electrical pulses among nerve cells in the brain. The electrical disturbances provoke seizure activity. Anything that disturbs the normal neuron activity has to potential to cause sezure effects. Stoke is also related to the nervous system, and a "malfunction" in the processes of the brain. In short...one expresses his emotions and his reactions through their nervous system, and because of this, the nervous system may be one of the most crucial organ systems in the human body... Sensory Receptors what is it? *Sensory Receptors are special cells or tissues that acquire input from our external environment and sends them through the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system.

Example: Our eyes have built in receptors that are sensitive to light. Neurons ONLY transmit information in one direction, however nerves allow a two-way flow of information. The general purpose of the nervous system is for the brain to send and receive signals from different parts of the body.The nervous system is a key component to the human body, it allows our body to respond to the outside world and to the internal environment.
The nervous system is in control of how other systems work within the human body, it tells the respiratory system when to increase the breathing rate, the circulatory system when the heart should beat faster, and when we should start eating and drinking or when to stop. An additional function to the brain is perception: interprets and makes sense of all the information we recieve from our environment. BRAIN SPINAL CORD Peripheral Nervous System To sum it up... The End Relevance to Skeletal System - bones provide calcium which is essential
for the nervous system
- protection to Central Nervous System
- sensory receptors in joints send signals about
body position
- brain regulates position of bones by controlling
muscles http://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1C1ASUT_en-GBCA465CA465&biw=673&bih=646&tbm=isch&tbnid=skmQcg-3bbFBPM:&imgrefurl=http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Human-Male-Figure-Showing-Skeletal-and-Nervous-Systems-Posters_i9008747_.htm&docid=-qaskne-wNbgXM&itg=1&imgurl=http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-473-488-90/64/6475/DUB6100Z/posters/carol-mike-werner-human-male-figure-showing-skeletal-and-nervous-systems.jpg&w=366&h=488&ei=F72RUNGeCO7h0wGy84HABw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=6&sig=108749061773775735548&page=2&tbnh=150&tbnw=113&start=17&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,i:175&tx=42&ty=34 http://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1280&bih=827&tbm=isch&tbnid=_MiJefxNo5ErbM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/The_Nervous_System&docid=CsyJosYtYtsmmM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Nervous_system_diagram.png&w=421&h=695&ei=baeKULGyNsWQ2QWJjYHgDQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=179&vpy=111&dur=640&hovh=289&hovw=175&tx=112&ty=134&sig=106016437669360560160&page=1&tbnh=156&tbnw=94&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:71 https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQajq1cMRZ7taDUQXlMsl0MRsGa5uUHL6RXcNGZoqolx0ui630xYA Relevance to Skeletal System Relevance to Muscular System - somatic nervous system controls the contraction of
skeletal muscle (voluntary, conscious control) e.g. arms
- autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle
(involuntary, not conscious control) e.g. digestive system Relevance to Muscular System http://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&rlz=1C1ASUT_en-GBCA465CA465&biw=673&bih=646&tbm=isch&tbnid=QrES7vKeTvjtOM:&imgrefurl=http://uvahealth.com/services/neurosciences/conditions-and-treatments/432316&docid=j4a2qkybIVFV5M&imgurl=http://uvahealth.com/Plone/ebsco_images/7757.jpg&w=242&h=394&ei=N8SRUJKMNsaZyQG2_YHADw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=73&vpy=101&dur=3497&hovh=287&hovw=176&tx=114&ty=166&sig=108749061773775735548&page=1&tbnh=139&tbnw=87&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,i:72 Equine Nervous System - contains central, peripheral, and autonomic
nervous system ( CNS, PNS, ANS)
- central: very similar to human system
- peripheral : sensory and motor nerves
- sensory: info from body parts to CNS
- motor: infor from CNS to body parts
- autonomic: symathetic and parasympathetic
- symathetic: governs "fight" or "slight" reaction, alerts the horse to unpleasant circumstances
- parasympathetic: governs pleasant times, resting, sleeping, digesting Equine Nervous System http://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1C1ASUT_en-GBCA465CA465&biw=673&bih=646&tbm=isch&tbnid=y00Lk0NlGYebPM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Nervous_System&docid=qP-zrUMJeuQjvM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/Horse_nervous_system_labelled.JPG&w=679&h=412&ei=4sqRUOXIMPPG0AGZkYHgBw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=99&vpy=162&dur=947&hovh=175&hovw=288&tx=161&ty=111&sig=108749061773775735548&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=205&start=0&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,i:66 Inflammation of the nerves or blood vessels connected to the brain, hemorrhage in or around the brain, changes in cerebrospinal fluid pressure, development of a brain lesion , head injury, and central nervous system infection can all lead to migranes. Treatment may be neccesary. Seizures are an overactivity of the cells of the brain which effects different areas of the central nervous system, mostly in the forebrain. The effects of seizures depend on their location in the brain and how severe they are. Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System The autonomic nervous system handles the involuntary actions of the body.This systems consists of two components called the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system. Both of these types of nerves are spinal nerves.

Sympathetic = typically functions in actions requiring quick responses such as fight or flight responses, digestive system stops, heart races to provide abundant oxygen to the muscles.

Parasympathetic= functions with actions that do not require immediate reaction such as relaxed state, digestion occurs as normal, heart is at a steady paced rhythm, urination, eating, sexual activity and many more. The somatic nervous system is apart of the peripheral
nervous system. It controls all the voluntary actions of
body. This system is made up of two sub-parts; the afferent and the efferent. Afferent - the afferent neurons send impulses from the sensory organs to the brain

Efferent - the efferent neurons send impulses from the brain to the muscles Relevance to Circulatory System The nervous system of course needs nutrients to be brought to it and waste molecules to be taken away, this is accomplished by the circulatory system. The involuntary acts performed by the nervous system also controls heart rate, which is a part of the circulatory system as well. Controlling body heat is also its function, which regulates the heart functions as well as blood circulation
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