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Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibio

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Jessica Yaemmongkol

on 28 April 2014

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Transcript of Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibio

In Vitro Evaluation
The main disadvantage of the results of in vitro studies is that it is difficult to compare among the study because of the different test methods, different extraction methods, test assays and variation in chemical phytoconstituents.


Bacterial Resistance to Essential Oils
Very little research have been done to identify resistance in bacteria against essential oils.

The studies provide limited evidence to suggest any occurrence of essential oils resistance.
Conclusion
Combination of Antibiotics and Essential Oils to Reverse Resistance
The reversal of resistance occur when a synergistic outcome is observed.
Resistant Modifying Capability of Essential Oils
Three main targets of antibiotics are cell wall, protein and nucleic acids biosynthesis.

There are four major groups of B-lactamss: penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams and cabapenems.
Introduction
Antibiotic therapy is very important in fighting infectious diseases and has enhanced human health tremendously.

Despite the advancement, we live in an era where incidents of antibiotic resistant infections are on the rise.

The most important factor influencing the emergence and spread of resistance is due to excessive exposure.

Persistence of antibiotic resistance urges the need of finding new therapies against the multi-drug resistant bacteria
Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance
B-Lactamase Inhibition
Essential oils and antibiotics combination against b-lactamase producers are limited.
One report on synergistic effect of oregano and fluroquinolones.
Plenty of possibilities for the use of essential oils in combination with antibiotics as new treatments against bacterial infections.

Stability, selectivity and bioavailability of the natural products in the human body still needs to be addressed.

More research needs to be done and hopefully this way of combating infections will pick up momentum.
Honors Antibiotic Resistance Jessica Yaemmongkol
No antibiotics have entered clinical trial, because too much emphasis is placed on identifying targets and molecules that interact, while too little is placed on the actual ability of the molecules.
Natural Products
Natural products are viewed as a privileged group of structures which have evolved to interact with a variety of protein targets for specific purposes.

Plant extract consist of complex mixtures of major compounds and their secondary metabolites along with conventional antibiotics to exude possible synergistic effects due to the complex pathophysiology of diseases.
Advantages of using natural products as antimicrobial compounds:
fewer adverse effects
better patient tolerance
relatively inexpensive
wide acceptance
renewability
better biodegradability
Plant Essential Oils
Essential oils, also known as volatile oils, are products of the secondary metabolism of aromatic plants.
Essential oils are not true oils as they do not contain lipid content instead they are highly complex volatile compounds. The component comprise of two biosynthetically related groups named terpenes and aromatic compounds.
Various essential oils have been reviewed to possess different biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, sedative, digestive, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic activities.
Plant Essential Oils
The question is weather the biological effects are due to the main compound at the highest levels or the biological effects arise from the synergism of all the molecules present.

Oil components, mainly those with phenolic structures were able to exhibit a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity and that the chemical structures greatly affect the components effectiveness and their mode of antibacterial action

Essential oils have been found to be synergistic enhancers that may not produce any significant inhibitory effects when used alone, but when used in combination with the drugs, the effect surpasses their individual performance and enhanced microbial activities.
Antibiotics with essential oils that target resistant bacteria have different mechanisms of action that may lead to new choices overcome microbial resistance.
Bacterial Efflux Pump Inhibition
Able to efflux a large range of compounds including synthetic antibiotics.
It is believed that bacteria will not easily resist compounds that natural compared to synthetic compounds.
Cell Wall and Membrane Disturbance
Essential oils have great affinity for cell membranes and exhibit high potential to permeate through cells walls, leading to leakage of cell content.
Sources
Polly Soo Xi Yap. Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance. The Open Microbiology Journal, 2014, 8, 6-14. web.
The function of the main components is regulated by other minor molecules which help in potentiating synergistic effect. It is likely that several components play a role in characterizing the fragrance, density, texture, color, ability in cell penetration, lipophilicity, fixation on cell walls, and bioavailability.
Multidrug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria
The outer membrane of gram-negatives bacteria plays a crucial role in providing an extra layer of protection to the bacteria as a selective barrier.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negatives and contributes greatly to the structural integrity of the bacteria and also increases the negative charge of the cell membrane.

Natural products have been found to have great effects in disrupting the bacterial membrane due to the presence of lipophilic compounds.
Clinical outcome depends on a wide range of other factors such as the site of infection, pharmacological properties of the antibiotic, concomitance of other diseases, and efficiency of specific and non-specific defense mechanism.
In vitro susceptibility does not guarantee success of the clinical use of the therapeutic agent.
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