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magnesium sulfate

honors chemistry project 1/21/13

daniel drake

on 22 January 2013

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Transcript of magnesium sulfate

Magnesium Sulfate A Closer Look at MgSO4 Chemical
Properties Magnesium Sulfate Physical Properties Chemical Properties Bonds
Forces Intramolecular Bonds Intermolecular Forces Mg 2+ Magnesium sulfate is a colorless, odorless substance with fine needle-like structures. Magnesium sulfate solution is neither acidic nor basic. On a pH scale, its value is around 6.0. Intramolecular bonds within magnesium sulfate are both ionic and covalent. The intermolecular forces in magnesium sulfate are ionic, dipole-dipole, and London dispersion forces. It is slightly bitter in taste. Magnesium sulfate in its anhydrous form, is hygroscopic. It has a tendency to attract moisture from the air easily. Due to this property, it is often used as a drying agent in organic synthesis. Magnesium sulfate has the ability to convert acoustic energy into heat energy. In sea water, magnesium is mainly responsible for the absorption of sound. It mostly affects sound of higher frequencies. Physical State Taste Hygroscopy Sound Absorption Magnesium is found in various types of hydrates, other than heptahydrate. It also forms hexahydrate (6), pentahydrate (5), starkeyite (4) and sanderite (2). But the occurrence of these is rare. Kieserite is the monhydrate form, which is obtained in evaporitic deposits of seawater. When dissolved in water, magnesium sulfate splits into ions of magnesium and sulfate. When heated at 250ºC, heptahydrate loses water to form anhydrous salt. On further heating, the salt is partially broken down to magnesium oxide. pH Scale On Heating Reaction with Water Hydrates The bonds within sulfate, between sulfur and oxygen, are covalent. This forms a charged molecule that bonds ionically with positively charged magnesium. A covalent bond is when two elements equally share valence electrons in order to obtain a full octet. An ionic bond is when one element donates its electrons to the other more electronegative element. The electrostatic forces that allow ions to bond together into a compound are ionic intermolecular forces and they are the strongest. Dipole-dipole forces occur when the compound is polar. In magnesium sulfate, a dipole exists between sulfur and oxygen. London dispersion forces are the weakest intermolecular forces and exist between all compounds. They involve temporarily induced dipoles in an otherwise non-polar electron cloud. In magnesium sulfate, ionic forces exist between magnesium and sulfate ions. Applications and Handling Real Life Applications Magnesium sulfate is also commonly referred to as Epsom salt. Usually used in bath soaks, hydrotherapy, and in formulas this salt has been hailed as one of the easiest solutions to some common health ailments. Storage and Disposal Methods In accordance with regulations for special waste, magnesium sulfate solutions must be taken, after pretreatment, to an authorized special waste disposal site. No special storage precautions are necessary. It is highly soluble in inorganic solvents like water. At room temperature, around 700 grams of magnesium gets dissolved in one liter of water. It is partially soluble in organic solvents, like glycerin and alcohol. Solubility
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