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Baseballs: How it's made Short Version
Transcript of Baseballs: How it's made Short Version
A round cushioned cork pill that is located in its' center.
The rubber casing of the pill.
Wool and poly/cotton windings that are wrapped around the pill.
And the outside of the baseball, the familiar cowhide leather covering. http://dailyapple.blogspot.ca/2012/10/apple-608-how-baseballs-are-made.html http://www.sportscollectorsdaily.com/topps-golden-ticket-baseball-pulled-by-shop-owner/ The Inside of a Baseball The Cork: Where does it come from? Cork can be found in almost every type of tree. Of those trees, they all have an outer layer of cork bark, where the cork is found. The primary source cork comes from is the Cork Oak, or the Quercus Suber. It is used to make most of the worlds' cork products, including wine stoppers. This tree is found primarily in countries that run along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Why does it grow there? In these areas', it has plenty of sun shine, low rain fall, and high humidity. The Cork Oak (Quercus Suber). http://www.ecology.info/images/cork-oak-photo.jpg Countries that produce the most cork include Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Algeria, France, Italy and Tunisia. The Making of Wool, Poly, and Cotton Wool to Yarn: The wool is first sheered of the sheep with a power sheer to get the fleece off in one piece. http://thesonglines.wordpress.com/2008/08/21/sheep-shears-and-beards/ A lot of people like baseball Some people play it everyday And some know everything about the game The one thing that a lot of people don't know about baseball is how the baseball is made The elements found in a Quercus Suber are Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. The Making of Baseballs The baseball first starts with the pill. The pill is about 4 1/4 inches in circumference, making it smaller then a golf ball. It is a rubber ball with cork at its center. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw Images from: Into the Drum The Pill Hundreds' of pills are then loaded in a machine called a drum. Latex Adhesive, a type of glue that is poured onto the pills in the drum. Spinners spin the drum. This is to evenly spread and cook the pills with the adhesive. This makes the pills sticky for the next step of the creation of baseballs. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw Wrapping the Wool This now sticky pill is wrapped in 4 different layers of wool. The first layer of yarn is a 4 ply wool that fattens the pill. The second layer of wool yarn is a 3 ply, not 4 ply like the first. This thickens the ball even more. The third layer of wool yarn is another 3 ply wool. The only difference this one is from the second layer of wool is that it is a bit lighter then the last. These three layers of yarn give the baseball the ability to spring back into its' original shape after being hit repeatedly by a bat. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw The fourth and final layer of wool is not fully wool, but a poly-wool blend. It is used because the surface of this string is much smoother then the rest of the layers. All together, this wool is called the center. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw The center of the Baseball. This is the first layer of wool, and the second about to be loaded onto the pill. These are pills Inside of a pill Latex Adhesive getting put of pills in a drum. A drum Close But Not Yet The baseball is almost complete, a couple more steps then you would have a complete baseball.
We move back to a drum, where adhesive is added to one already spinning. The centers are then loaded into the drum. The drum is spun to get the glue on all the centers. Once this finishes, we move onto the second last step, forming the leather. Adhesive being added to a spinning drum. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw The Leather In this step, a large sheet of leather is loaded into a hydraulic press. This machine punches out the required shapes for the leather easily and quickly. It also has holes inside the perimeter of the shape for stitching. Worker using a hydraulic press http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw Piece used to punch put required shape and make holes for stitching. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw Last but not least Now, finally we get to the last step, the sewing. Two cut outs from the leather fit perfectly onto the sticky center. The sewers put the center with the two leather cut outs in a vice to keep it still and in place.
Now, it's time to sew. The worker works with two needles. They pull them through the center and up through the stitches in the leather and cross stitches them together. He/she quickly sews 108 stitches for the ball. They must do it quickly because there are still many baseballs to sew. The finale stitch of the ball goes through the center. They then pull all the stitches into a V configuration. This gives the ball its' consistent look and feel that we expect in baseballs.
The now finished baseballs go into a press that smooths the seems.
Now the baseball is finished and ready to be sold. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw A baseball in a vice about to be sewed together. Remember, all baseballs are sewn by hand. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw Baseballs being loaded into a press. Last Hidden Step That was the last step of the creation of the baseball, but before a baseball can be sold, it must be stamped with a 3-headed stamper that gives the baseball its' trademark, the league logo, and the commissioners' signature. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw A 3-headed stamper doing its' job stamping baseballs It takes one week to make just a baseball. But more then one baseball is made at once so probably 1000's of baseballs are made daily. By Christopher Rzepka Fg 1.2 The starting machine used to separate the fibers. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEYsmzophTA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEYsmzophTA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEYsmzophTA The elements found in wool are Carbon , Curium , and Germanium. http://www.bpc.edu/mathscience/chemistry/images/periodic_table_of_elements.jpg Fg 1.5 Here, the carding machine is getting out the debris and making the web. Fg 1.3 This is a picture of the blending room. The web is then divided into smaller, thin, flat strips with this machine to the right. This machine then takes those strips and twirls them into thinner, rounder strips called a roving. A roving looks like yarn but is much weaker then yarn. If you were to pull on it, it would simply break. This is because it has not been spun. The spinning is what gives a roving its strength and makes it yarn. With out it being spun, it has no strength whatsoever. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEYsmzophTA Fg. 1.6 This machine spins webbing into a roving. The rovings go into a machine called a spinning frame. This is what spins the rovings and gives them strength. The spinning frame stretches the rovings and spins them tightly creating yarn. And this is how wool yarn and wool-poly and wool-cotton blends are made. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEYsmzophTA Fg 1.7 This is a spinning frame, what makes the rovings into yarn. http://pf.okalea.com/swf/ http://pf.okalea.com/swf/ AND THAT IS HOW ONE IS MADE How Rubber is Made Rubber is used in many objects. Some rubber products may be around you right now. Like erasers, car tires, the bottom of a shoe, and many more. Rubber can be found almost anywhere.
Some may think that all rubber comes from trees, but believe it or not, only 25-30% of rubber products are made from real rubber. The real rubber is made from latex from trees, such as a rubber tree (Hevea Brasiliensis). These trees are found in hot places such as South America, where the most trees are grown. But these trees can also be found in parts of Asia and Africa. The latex is milked from the trees. It is accessed by removing the bark of the try and going into the inner layers. Latex flows down the grooves of the bark that have been made in the tree. These grooves lead to bowls where the latex is stored during the milking process. If the sap is not being used as latex, it is mixed with other chemicals such as water and acid. This thickens the latex and turns it into rubber. The liquid rubber is dried and formed into sheets and/or blocks of rubber. But this all depends on how the rubber is being used and sold. Artificial Rubber is made from petroleum, or crude oil as it can be called, is a type of fossil fuel that is naturally a black colour. It is a naturally occurring flammable liquid. Petroleum has many carbon molecules. When being turned into rubber, these molecules are chemically altered, and turned into different molecules called diene. A diene contains two carbon double bonds meaning it is two of the same molecules/element, so it has double the amount of electrons as normal. The petroleum is re altered (altered again) or the diene is altered to form a long chain of these molecules. They are now called polymers. Polymers are the finished product, the finished synthetic rubber. This type of rubber first started being made in World War 2, when it was to hard to milk the rubber trees and get the latex. This is rubber tree being milked. http://www.blurtit.com/q621880.html http://www.giantbomb.com/rubber-band-ai/92-35/ Here is an example of rubber, a rubber band ball. http://www.energybook.info/Crude_Oil.html Petroleum, or Crude Oil http://www.diytrade.com/china/pd/6441534/rubber_infill_for_artificial_grass.html Artificial Rubber, looks the same as real rubber, but is very different. The elements found in cork include Carbon and Hydrogen, but only in natural rubber. Leather; the Process of Creation The elements found in leather are Silica, Argon, Carbon, and it has a trace of Magnesium. Cowhide leather comes from cows killed for meat. If cowhides weren't turned into leather, it would be a waste of them so in a way, "making them leather is kind of recycling" said the narrator of youtube's Triwood1973 video Leather - How It's Made. Moooo! http://thecowcorner.blogspot.ca/ http://www.bpc.edu/mathscience/chemistry/images/periodic_table_of_elements.jpg http://www.bpc.edu/mathscience/chemistry/images/periodic_table_of_elements.jpg First, the workers will cut each piece of cowhide in half, creating two smaller pieces that are much easier to process and handle then the one large piece. Hundreds if these half pieces will go into a modified cement mixer that is redeveloped to remove the hair of the skins. The cement mixer is filled with water. Workers will dump in a large bag of a combination of sodium sulfide (Na2S) and lime. The chemical reaction to this substance removes the hair clean of the skins. They will bake the skins in acid. This allows them to absorb a tanning process. The tanning process happens in a large wooden drum. Pongs in the drum keep the cowhide from getting tangled with each other during the process. Chrome salts added to the tanning process end up turning the hides a light blue colour. This happens because the chrome salts bind into the cowhide collagen fibers. The cowhides have now officially become leather, but more is done before sold.
Workers with feed the leather into machines that slits layers of leather, making it the right thickness. The leather is put in the machine grain side up. More workers will check the leather with an object called a gauge. This object checks the thickness to make sure it is the right thickness needed. A second turning will take place in the modified cement mixers. This time, they use a solution of vegetable extract, tree bark, and water. The workers there will also add dye and chemicals into the mixer. The chemical will make the leather water resistant. The dye changes the colour of the leather giving it a brown tint. The dye does not change the leather colour alone, but help with the chemical added, the dye vines to the leather giving it the colour wanted. The drying process is simple, workers "paint" on a mix of starch and water onto the leather. Doing this, the leathers can be pressed/stuck onto a big frame of glass. The glass has the same mix as the mix painted onto the leathers. This will cause the leathers to dry flat, what is wanted. The leather will stay in a dryer compressed with other leathers for four hours, that's how long it takes for leather to dry. After dried, a spinning spray system sprays the now dry leathers to give them the wanted colour. A machine called glazing jack pulls a glass cylinder over the leather repeatedly with abrasive action. This action policies the leather to make it shinny. And last, huge rollers, which are heated smooth wrinkles to finish the leather up. And that is how leather is made. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vbTCeYwt_g Here is a picture of a worker putting in the Na2S with lime in the modified cement mixer. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vbTCeYwt_g The pongs in the drum. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vbTCeYwt_g A worker using a gauge. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vbTCeYwt_g The leather coming out of the mixer the second time. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vbTCeYwt_g Workers putting a sheet of leather up to dry. The glazing jack policing the leather. Resources: Environmental Impacts of Baseballs Baseballs don't create much environmental problems. Not much carbon is released when a baseball is being made. Not many of the materials used to make a baseball cause environmental impacts. So that is good for the environment. And besides, a baseball is always well used before it gets thrown away. The only real reason you would throw a baseball away if the leather starts to rip of, but it is very hard for that to happen. List of environmental problems with the creation of a baseball: Non environment destroying parts: Environmental Problems: Cork is harvested and regrown every year, you don't need to cut down a tree to get to it like paper.
Wool is shaved and regrown by sheep all the time. And sheep aren't killed doing it, thus releasing very little if any carbon.
Rubber trees have latex sap. Like maple trees, you can re-harvest them every year, so no trees die.
Leather is from cows used for meat, thus the leather is taken from cows that are already dead, saving money and cows in the process. There can be one problem. If the rubber used is artificial rubber, it uses fossil fuels, which are one of the biggest global warming problems because it is basically made of carbon. Sometimes they destroy habitats to get to the fossil fuel so this can be very bad, but only if artificial rubber is used, and not natural rubber. http://www.blurtit.com/q621880.html
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_elements_in_rubber http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXS9dfzUbxw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEYsmzophTA The cork is blended with nothing but itself. A cork is heated up, to allow the partials to move faster. This creates either the cork to become liquid, or it to become a solid/liquid half state which allows cork to be molded into any required shape. The new shape is going to be what the cork is used for. A cork is a heterogeneous mixture because you can clearly see different parts in the cork. The ways the wool is blended with other substances are very simple. The wool is shredded and blended with other materials, so they are kind of dissolved together. Most of the time, the wool is the solvent because it appears the most in the mixture, and the poly/cotton fibers put in are the solute. Depending on what wool yarn it is, it could be either a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture. How the wool is blended with other objects: Blending process of Cork: Solutes and Solvents of Rubber: Natural rubber is made by mixing and dissolving different substances into latex, the solvent. The solutes include water, and different types of acid which creates and thick substance, and when cooled, rubber.
Rubber, like wool can also be a heterogeneous mixture or a homogeneous mixture, depending of how it is coloured. And you can't forget about artificial rubber. Substances are changed from one thing to another using chemistry. The starting substance is Petroleum, a highly flammable fossil fuel. It is chemically altered to change it into rubber. The skin used for leather is the skin from cows that were killed for meat. The leather goes through a series of different events. First, it has hair dissolved/ melted off of the skin with Na2S ( Sodium Sulfide) and lime. It is then mixed with smaller solids which are the solute, which are chrome salts. They mix with the skin, which is the solvent. The result of these two things creates real leather. The rest of the steps are to make it ready to sell. The leather is then separated with itself to make it and even thickness. It is not a real way to separate solids, because the other ways separates them by size, look, metal type, and solids from liquids, so there is not real way to do this. The leather also goes through another event where it is the solvent, and the dyes, chemicals, and the vegetable extract, tree bark, water solution are the solute. Together your result is water proof, softer, and a nice shade of brown tint leather. The leather is also a heterogeneous mixture, this is because of the different shades of browns (or other colours) and shapes found on the leathers surface. The leather is then dried, polished, and has it's wrinkles removed with a roller. After this, the leather is sold. Blending Process of A Baseball For a baseball, all the blending process is combining alloys with each other. The pill is attached to the yarn with the help of the adhesive. The yarn is strongly wrapped around the pill. And with more help with the adhesive, the leather skin of the baseball is combined with the yarn center. A baseball is indeed a heterogeneous mixture. That is the blending process of a baseball. PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vbTCeYwt_g All images have their link underneath, or beside them. So if you need the picture links, go to the pictures. Natural Rubber Natural rubber is made by milking the latex from trees. The trees latex comes from are rubber trees (Hevea Brasiliensis). These trees are found in hot places such as South America, where latex is most made. The milking of the latex is accessed the same way maple sap is accessed. Farmers tap into the inner layer of bark where the latex is found. It then gets collected in a bowl where it is kept until it is taken by a farmer. The latex is then mixed with other chemicals such as water and acids. This thickens the latex and turns it into rubber where it is dried and made into whatever it is being sold and used for. The wool is first shaved off a sheep with a power sheer to take the fleece off in one piece. The sheered wool is cleaned with detergent before the wool is processed. Once the fleece arrives at a factory, it is feed into a machine which separates the fibers. These fibers go into a blending room which evenly blends the fibers to get the desired texture. The fibers are also blended with other fibers such as polyester fibers. The average blending takes one hour. Air pipes transport the fibers to the next station. These pipes also spray a mineral oil mixture on the fibers so processing becomes easier. The destination of the air pipes is the carding machine. Fibers pass through rollers of this machine. Each roller has tiny metal teeth used to untangle the fibers. Once separated, the machine removes the debris caught in the fibers. The fibers are then made into a large, smooth, flat piece called a web. The web is divided into smaller, thin, flat strips with the machine in figure 1.6. This machine takes those strips and twirls them into thinner, rounder strips called a roving. A roving looks like yarn but is much weaker than yarn. If you were to pull on it, it would simply break. This is because it has not been spun. The spinning of a roving is what gives it its' strength. The rovings go into a machine called a spinning frame, which spins the rovings and gives then strength. The spinning frame stretches the rovings and spins them tightly creating yarn. This is how wool yarn is made. Fg 1.1