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Conflicts of the Middle East

Identifying the major conflicts of the Middle East, their causes, effects, and possible solutions
by

Owen Cegielski

on 22 April 2013

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Transcript of Conflicts of the Middle East

Conflicts in the Middle East Iraq 1980-1988: Iran-Iraq War
Causes:
Border disputes
Hussein's want of increasing Iraqi dominance
US Involvment:
US openly supports Iraq - Retaliation agianst 1979 Iranian Hostage Crisis and 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution
US secretly sells arms to Iran in spite of arms embargo
Imporve relations with Iran
Place more American influence in Middle East
"Bribe" Iran into releasing seven hostages held by Iranian terrorists in Lebanon
Result:
Stalemate 1990 Iraq Invasion of Kuwait
Causes:
Kuwait had increased its oil output, thereby lowering oil prices
Iraq also accused Kuwait of slant drilling and stealing Iraqi oil
The Invasion:
Iraq invades and then occupies Kuwait
The Iraq invasion of Kuwait leads to the 1st Gulf War 1990-1991 1st Gulf War:
A US-led coalition of countries waged war against Iraq in condemnation of the Iraq invasion and occupation of Kuwait
The 2 major parts of this war were...
Desert Shield: An effort to protect Saudi Arabian oil fields from Hussein's grasps, as Hussein was attempting to gain more power by conquering oil-rich regions
Desert Storm: An effort to free Kuwait from Iraqi occupation
Result:
February 28, 1991: George H. W. Bush declare ceasefire.
Did not remove Saddam Hussein from power General Info:
30 million Kurds in region comprising of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Armenia
Generally practice Sunni Islam
Kurdistan: Land of the Kurds
Non-Arab minority
Before WWI:
Kurds were nomadic herders, traveling freely throughout Ottoman Empire
Post WWI:
Ottoman Empire breaks up into individual countries with borders, so Kurds cannot wander wherever they want anymore
No Kurdistan was formed in any WWI treaties
Kurds started having feelings of nationalism and a want for their own country
1920 Treaty of Sevres: formed the states of Iraq, Syria, and Kuwait, and promised Kurds a homeland
This treaty was never initiated.
1923: Treaty of Lausanne: took back the promise of the formation of a Kurdistan and physically seperated the Kurds into different regions of the Middle East
prevent the Kurds from creating a unified state on their own Kurdistan/The Kurds Kurds in Iraq/Iraqi Kurdistan:
Northern Iraq: Iraqi Kurdistan
Large population of Kurds
Kurds are a recognized ethic minority group in Iraq
There had always been numerous conflicts between the Iraqi government and the Kurds
Kurds would revolt against the Iraqi government when promises for a Kurdish homeland would go unfulfilled
For instance...
1970: Kurdistan Democratic Party leader Mustafa Barzani and Baghdad (capital of Iraq) make agreement on independence of Kurdistan. However, this agreement is not kept, which led to uprisings
Al-Anfal Campaign:
February-September 1988
Goals:
Regain control over northern Iraq
Get rid of Kurdish problem
Considered a gendercide, a genocide, and an attempt at ethnic cleansing
300,000 people died
Iraq War in Relation to Iraqi Kurdistan:
When the US overthrew Hussein's government (2003), the Kurds gained some freedom
Current Issues:
Now, however, the US has withdrawn its troops from Iraq and is practicing non-interference
Turkey has troops in northern Iraq fighting guerilla groups of the PKK (Kurdish Worker's Party)
Tensions over Kirkuk
Currently controlled by Iraqi government
Wanted by Iraqi-Kurdistan
Very large population of Kurds
An oil-rich region
Fears that Kurdistan Regional Government will try to take Kirkuk from Iraq Kurds in Turkey
1921: Attaturk overthrows Turkish monarchy
Makes Republic of Turkey
Attaturk is very against the creation of a Kurdistan
Therefore, he is very against the Treaty of Sevres.
1920-1930: Kurdish uprisings that result in Turkish crackdowns
Turkey attempts to force Kurds to assimilate into Turkish culture
Want to eradicate Kurdish traditions and language
1978: ABdullah Ocalan forms Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK)
PKK: a terrorist group which uses violence in attempts to gain Kurdish independence in the form of a sovereign Kurdistan
1984: Ocalan organizes major opposition against against Turkey
Recruits many young, easily radicalized Kurds
January 15, 1999L Ocalan captured
However, the PKK continues to live on today, using violence in order to initiate change
Currently:
Kurds are not recognized as a minority group in Turkey
Turkey attempts at joining the EU may be seen in a better light once Turkey's issues with Kurds begin to be corrected
Turkey denied having any issues with Kurds until very recently
Ignoring the problem will not get it fixed Overview of Kurdistan/Kurdish Issues
Kurds do not have a true homeland (Kurdish Diaspora) and do not truly belong anywhere
Kurds consider the true Kurdistan to be regions of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria
Turkey's problems: PKK
Iraq's problems: blurring boundaries over Kirkuk
Tensions between Iraqi government and Kurdistan Democratic Party
Some internal divisions between Kurds (religion, languages, different dialects) Afghan War: October 7, 2001-Present
Beginning of war sparked by 9/11 attacks
9/11: Acted out by al-Qaeda operatives
Not Afghans, but Saudi nationals
Purpose of war:
To eradicate Taliban insurgency
Taliban provide safety for al-Qaeda
"Win the war on terrorism" (George W. Bush)
Reduce corruption of Afghan government
Train Afghan military to act and protect its country independently
December 2001: Hamid Karzai becomes chairman of Afghanistan's interim administration
December 9, 2001: Taliban rule officially collapses
August 2003: NATO becomes majorly involved in Afghanistan
Controls international security forces
October 9, 2004: Karzai becomes 1st democratically elected president of Afghanistan
Accused of fraud
May 2005: US and Afghanistan become "stratigic partners"
US will help Afghanistan on war on terror and will help train Afghan army
November 2009: Karzai reelected as president
Again accused of fraud
May 1, 2011: Usama bin Ladan killed
2014: Goal to withdraw all US troops from Afghanistan Afghanistan Israel Arab-Israeli Conflicts and Israeli-Palestinian Conflicts
Issues originate over conflicting land ownership claims between Arabs and Jews
Post WWI (1918): Ottoman Empire collapses, leading to the destablization of the Middle East and a scramble for land ownership
This really sparks issues over land between Arabs and Jews
Both of these people's claims to land originate from their holy texts
Post WWII (1945): World-wide guilt and pity felt towards Jewish cause, which leads to international support for Zionism
1947: UN partitions Palestine equally (equal amounts of coastland, arable land, potable water)
May 14, 1948: Israel declares independence and enrages Arab countries...
Arab-Israeli Wars
1948: War of Independence
1956: Suez War
1967: 6 Day War
Israel gained Occupied Territories of West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights (later returned to Syria), and the Sinai Peninsula (later returned to Egypt)
1973: October War
Israel basically won all of these wars The Taliban
Had control of Afghan government from 1996 until 2001
Mohammed Omar: leader of Taliban
Lead Afghanistan during years that the Taliban controlled the government
Birthplace of Taliban: southern city of Kandahar
Supportive of al-Qaeda
Very strict interpretation of Sharia (Islamic law)
Leaders are followers of Wahhabism (branch of Sunni Islam)
Very anti-West and anti-American
Has safety in Pakistan
Makes it very hard for US to end Taliban insurgency
Al-Qaeda
Arabic for "the Base"
Islamist terrorist group
1980s: Created by Usama bin Laden
Very anti-West and anti-American
Safety in Pakistan
Responsible for 9/11
al-Qaeda attacks have decreased over the past 10 years because of counter-terrorism efforts Current Israeli-Palistinian Issues:
Israel is threatening to bomb Iran
Iran is considered a nuclear threat
The US says it will attempt to prevent Israel from bombing Iran but it cannot make promises
Today, Israelis use about 70% of the water available in the West Bank, while Palestinians use about 20%. (The rest is used by illegal Jewish settlers, which, of course, is another problem in itself.)
1 Israeli uses as much water as 4 Palestinians in the West Bank
Jewish settlements in West Bank
Jews claim it is their God-given right to be there, as the West Bank is considered to be the birthplace of Judaism
Israeli fence
2002: Construction began
Prevent Palestinian terrorists from entering Israel
Make it difficult for Palestinians to travel
Conflicts over Jerusalem
Israel wants to leave Jerusalem undivided
Palestine wants East Jerusalem
Continued conflicts over land
Israel has already withdrawn from the Gaza Strip
Palestine wants Israel to get out of at least some areas of the West Bank Review Review Review Review Part I: US Involvement in the Middle East and the Rise of Terrorism Part II: The Arab Spring The Arab Spring 2003-2011 Iraq War/2nd Gulf War
Iraq (Saddam Hussein's rule) hinted at having WMD (weapons of mass destruction) in order to appear more powerful
LIES (However, the rest of the world believed him, including the US)
Saddam purposely pretended to have nuclear weapons in order to prevent Iran from attacking Iraq
Saddam incorrectly assumed that the US knew that Iraq did not have nuclear weapons
March 2003: A US-led invasion overthrew Hussein's Sunni minority government.
Began the struggle between Sunnis, Shias, and Kurds for power in the new government order
December 14, 2003: Saddam Hussein captured.
April 2005: Parliment chooses new Iraqi president (Jalal Talabani, a Kurd) and prime minister (Ibrahim Jaafari, a Shia)
May 2006: Nouri al-Maliki becomes prime minister
Iraqi government is now Shia majority
November 2010: Parliament appoints Jalal Talabani as president and Nouri al-Maliki as prime minister again
December 2011: All US troops pull out of Iraq.
Currently:
There is an ongoing cycle of violence occurring in Iraq between Sunnis, Shias, and Kurds
Continuous power struggle
One group attacks the other, and the other strikes back in retaliation.
MAJOR international fears that a civil war may ensue. A wave of protests by the people throughout the Middle East against their governments. Tunisia
Backround Info:
1956: Gains independence from France
First president of independent Tunisia: Habib Bourguiba
Bourguiba: against Islamic fundamentalism (strict following of Islamic beliefs) and supported women's rights
1987: Bloodless coup gets rid of Bourguiba and replaces him with Zine el Abidine Ben Ali
Ben Ali: Ran a very repressive and dictatorship-like government
The Beginning of the Arab Spring
December 17, 2010: Mohammed Bouazizi, a jobless graduate selling vegetables in the city of Sidi Bouzid, set himself on fire to protest police officials confiscating his vegetable cart (this had occurred before).
Bouazizi's act was the spark that set off the Arab Spring
Prior to this, Tunisia had been relatively stable
Ben Ali threatened to instigate harsh crackdowns on protesters
December 2010: Street protests throughtout Tunisia over high unemployment, government corruption, poverty, and high food prices.
Clashes between street protesters and security forces lead to at least 200 deaths
January 14, 2011: Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia and a national unity government is created (allows all parties, including opposition, to voice their opinions) Egypt Backround Info:
1882: Ottoman control over Egypt ends
Britain now controls Egypt
1922: British control over Egypt ends and Egypt becomes independent
1952: Egyptian Revolution
1956: Gamal Abdul Nasser becomes president of Egypt
Egypt is, from 1956 until 2011, governed by a military dictatorship
1956: Suez War
1967: Six Day War
Israel takes control of the Occupied Territories
1970: Nasser dies and Anwar al-Sadar becomes president
1973: October War
1978: Camp David Accords
1981: Sadat assasinated
Arab world did not like him, as he signed a peace treaty with Israel and Egypt used to be the leading country of Pan-Arabism
1981: Hosni Mubarak becomes president
1991: Gulf War
Egypt was part of the US-led coalition Lebanon
Backround Info:
Post WWI (1918): French mandate over Lebanon
1943: Given independence
1975-1990: Lebanese Civil War
Causes:
Palestinian refugees and Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) guerillas came to Lebanon after the creation of Israel.
Fighting between Palestinians (Muslims) and Lebanese (Christians) over control and power of Lebanon.
1989: Taif Agreement - Outline for reestablishing Lebanon after the civil war and adapting to having a larger Muslim population.
Most radical Islamist groups were dissolved EXCEPT for Hezbollah, which is still currently headquartered in Lebanon.
Hezbollah involves itself in Lebanese politics. For instance...
January 25, 2011: Hezbollah supported candidate Najib Miqati for prime minister won
Led to anti-Hezbollah protests in the streets
2006: Hezbollah kidnapped 2 Israeli soldiers, leading to a 34 day conflict
During this conflict, around 1000 Lebanese civilians were killed
Post Civil War Basic Information
There have been many successful elections in Lebanon.
During the time period of May-June of 2005, Lebanon had its first elections that did not involve the interfering of foreign nations.
In this legislative election, the Sa’ad Hariri party won the majority
2011: Government collapsed under Prime Minister Hariri
The new Prime Minister is now Najib Miqati Yemen
Backround Info:
1918: North Yemen gains independence from Ottoman Empire
1962-1970: North Yemen Civil War
Cause: Ruler Imam Ahmad died and his son was supposed to then become ruler. However, army officials did not want a monarchy. Instead, they wanted to set up a republic (Yemen Arab Republic).
Fought between royalists (supportive of monarchies) backed by Saudi Arabia and republicans (supportive of a republic) supported by Egypt.
1967: South Yemen created (also known as the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen)
1972: Fighting between North and South Yemen
1978: Ali Abdallah Saleh becomes president of the YAR.
1990: North and South Yemen unite.
Saleh is president
1994 Civil War in Yemen: Clashes between old northern and southern armies.
1994: South Yemen attempts to split, but Saleh says no.
2001: Yemen partners with US in war against terrorism.
Begins crackdowns against terrorism.
March 2004-present: Sa'dah conflict begins with government forces fighting al-Houthi followers
Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi leads opposition against Yemen's government.
Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi:
Practices Shia Islam
Former member of parliament and radicalized religious leader
His supporters are part of the movement the Believing Youth
Goals: Get rid of US influence in Yemen's government, as it goes against Islam.
September 2004: al-Houthi killed and brother Abdul-Malik al-Houthi becomes major leader
Sa'dah conflict continues on today. Syria
Backround Info
Post WWI: French mandate over Syria.
1946: Syria becomes independent country
This was Syria's first experience being an independent nation, which resulted in instability and numerous military coups.
1948: Participate in War of Independence with Israel
1958: Syria and Egypt come together to create the United Arab Republic.
1961: United Arab Republic breaks up, and Syria is independent again.
1967: 6 Day War
Lost Golan Heights
1970: Bloodless coup results in Hafiz al-Assad's presidency
2000: Hafiz al-Assad dies and his son, Bashar al-Assad becomes president.
2006 Lebanon War: Hezbollah against Israel
Syria provide political support to Hezbollah
2007: Bashar al-Asad reelected The End Insurgents and Terror Groups in Iraq
Sunni Insurgents and Terror Groups
Ba'athists: supporters of Hussein's old regime
Fedayeen Saddam
Sunni Muslims/Nationalists: want to be in power again
Jaysh Ansar al- Sunna terror group
Sunni Islamists: supporters of the Salafi Movement
Salafi Movement: Sunni Islamists who think that their interpretation of the Koran is the ONLY correct one
Major Shia Terror Group
Hezbollah Current Issues:
Major Question: Is the war worth everything we have put into it?
Taliban influence has just strengthened and expanded
However, violence levels in Afghanistan seem to be decreasing (as of 2011)
2014 complete withdrawl of US troops is doubtful
US has had to "lower its standards" in regards to Afghanistan
Currently, we do not have a complete victory, nor do we have a complete defeat Terrorist Groups Threatening Israel
Hamas:
Headquartered in Palestine
Supported by Iran
Very anti-Israel and in support of Palestinian State
Sunni
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ):
Anti-US
Anti-Israel
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ):
Same goals as previous terrorist organizations
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ):
Based in Iraq
Same goals as previous terrorist organizations
Hezbollah:
Leader: Hassan Nasrallah
Lead group during 1982-2000 Israeli occupation of Lebanon
Party of God
Supported by Lebanon
Shia
Anti-Israel Terrorism in Yemen
2000: USS Cole (US ship) hurt from suicide attack
al-Qaeda
2000: British embassy bombed
Yemenis working with Palestinians
2002: Limburg supertanks damaged
al-Qaeda
2007: Tourists suffer from suicide bomb attack
10 tourists killed
2008: US embassy attacked
18 people killed
2011: US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton goes to Yemen on account of major concerns about Yemen's al-Qaeda problem
Major Terror Groups in Yemen:
Al-Qaeda
other insurgent groups The Arab Spring in Yemen
January 2011: Protests against President Saleh and Yemen government begin.
February 2, 2011: Saleh promises not to extend his rule and to step down in 2013.
Attempt to appease the people
February-October 2011: Protests and clashes between government security forces and protesters continue.
March 2011: Some importent government and military officials state support for protests.
General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar
November 23, 2011: Saleh makes deal to transfer power to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi in order to gain immunity from prosecution.
February 2012: Hadi becomes president. Post-Overthrow of Ben Ali
Switzerland freezes Ben Ali's assests
Ben Ali and wife (in absentia) were determined to be guilty by a Tunisian court for stealing and misusing public funds.
Sentance: 35 years in prison
February 27, 2011: Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi resigns during political unrest
October 2011: Parliamentary elections for the Constituent Assembly are held
This body is in charge of appointing a new interim government, creating a new consititution, and preparing for elections after the fall of Ben Ali and the old government.
Moderate Islamist Ennahda party won majority in parliament The Arab Spring in Syria:
March 15, 2011: Day of Dignity protests in Damascus
Want political prisoners to be set free and want repeal of emergency law
March 19, 2011: Unrest really starts to happen in city of Daraa
Daraa closed off from the rest of Syria
March 25. 2011: Protesters want Assad to step down from presidency
Demonstrations against Assad lead to security forces using violence to restrain protesters.
April 2011: Emergency law lifted.
May 2011: Bombardment of Homs, Daraa, Banyas, and Damascus begins.
Use of heavy artillary by security forces.
Previous US and EU sanctions against Syria increase in severity
June 2011: IAEA reports Syrian secret nuclear activities to UN Security Council.
August 2011: Obama and others ask Assad to abdicate.
December 2011: Death toll: 5,000+
February 2012: Russia and China veto UN Security Council draft resolution about Syria.
February 2012: Syrian government intensifies bombardments.
Assad believes that opposition forces are armed terrorists and he will not talk with them.
March 2012: Security forces recapture Homs from rebels.
Kofi Annan: UN Arab League peacee envoy - Attempting to secure a ceasefire between the opposition and government forces
Conflicts have not yet been resolved. The Arab Spring Moves to Egypt:
January 17, 2011: A 50 year old man set himself on fire in order to protest poor living conditions.
January 18, 2011: Two men set themselves on fire (in different cities) to protest the government.
These are attempts at copying Bouazizi's protest.
January 26, 2011: Thousands protest in towns, as security forces use violence to crackdown on the opposition.
January 28, 2011: Mubarak refuses to step down, and the protests continue.
February 11, 2011: Mubarak steps down and gives power to the military. The Arab Spring in Lebanon:
To date, there have been major protests in Lebanon against the government and Hezbollah, but there has not been a complete overthrowing of the government.
The Laique Pride protest/march: A protest against Lebanon's political sectarianism found in the government. (Political sectarianism is when a government party focuses on deriding another government party that has really similar beliefs.) Treaties and Results
1978: Camp David Accords: created after October War between Egypt and Israel (and later Jorden)
The only lasting peace treaty in the Middle East
1993: Oslo Accords-forms framework for Arab state/Palestine
Israel promises to get Jewish out of areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, but they say it may take some time
This promise has still not been completely fulfilled
Continued issues over land ownership of areas of the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and areas containing potable water
Palestinians do not trust Israelis, and vice-versa
Religious conflicts: Arabs are Muslim and Israelis are Jews
The US has always been more supportive of Israel than of Palestine, which helped lead to the creation of terror groups.
Current Key People:
PA President: Mahmoud Abbas
Prime Minister of Israel: Benjamin Netanyahu
The president of Israel is more of a "figurehead role" as the prime minister is the one with the real power BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES

Al Jazeera. “Interactive: Timeline of Syria unrest .” Al Jazeera. N.p., 15 Mar. 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2012/02/201225111654512841.html>.

“Headquartered in the heart of the Middle East, and with close to 70 news bureaus worldwide, Al Jazeera English tells the stories that other networks do not. As the ”Voice of the South“, the channel covers under-reportede regions and events across the world through a spirit of journalism that is honest, courageous and distinctive. Since our launch in 2006, the channel’s news, online and programmes divisions have won numerous international TV awards.” This source was used in researching Syria as a secondary source of information.


Associated Press. “Syrians Vote For Assad in Uncontested Referendum .” The Washington Post. N.p., 28 May 2007. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/27/AR2007052701117.html>.

“This news and information company publishes 24/7 on multiple platforms. Whether reading it online, in print, or on your mobile phone, The Washington Post is an indispensable guide to the nation’s capital. While The Post has operations around the metropolitan region and the world, its news and business activities are headquartered in downtown D.C.” This source was used in researching Syria as a secondary source of information.


Bajoria, Jayshree. “al-Qaeda.” Council on Foreign Relations . N.p., 29 Aug. 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations/al-qaeda-k-al-qaida-al-qaida/p9126 >.

“Jayshree Bajoria supervises an editorial team and manages daily publishing of news-related content on the website. She also oversees social media efforts designed to build online communities of CFR.org readers. Ms. Bajoria specializes in Asia, international security, terrorism, nonproliferation, human rights, and development issues, and contributes regularly to analysis and background reporting to the website. She was the lead writer/producer for Crisis Guide:Pakistan, winner of an Overseas Press Club award, an Online News Association award, and two Telly awards. It was also nominated for a 2011 News and Documentary Emmy. She was also selected to participate in the 2011 International Reporting Project’s Gatekeeper Editors’ trip to Indonesia and the 2010 U.S.-Korea Journalism Exchange Fellowship by the East-West Center, Hawaii.” This source was used to research al-Qaeda and is a secondary source of information.


- -. “The Taliban in Afghanistan.” Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., 6 Oct. 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/taliban-afghanistan/p10551>.

“Jayshree Bajoria supervises an editorial team and manages daily publishing of news-related content on the website. She also oversees social media efforts designed to build online communities of CFR.org readers. Ms. Bajoria specializes in Asia, international security, terrorism, nonproliferation, human rights, and development issues, and contributes regularly to analysis and background reporting to the website. She was the lead writer/producer for Crisis Guide:Pakistan, winner of an Overseas Press Club award, an Online News Association award, and two Telly awards. It was also nominated for a 2011 News and Documentary Emmy. She was also selected to participate in the 2011 International Reporting Project’s Gatekeeper Editors’ trip to Indonesia and the 2010 U.S.-Korea Journalism Exchange Fellowship by the East-West Center, Hawaii.” This source was used to research Afghanistan and is a secondary source of information.


BBC. “Profile: Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali.” BBC. N.p., 20 June 2011. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12196679>.

“The BBC’s six public purposes are set out by the Royal Charter and Agreement, the constitutional basis for the BBC as presented to Parliament. These purposes outline the values the BBC holds when striving to achieve its mission to inform, educate and entertain.” This source was used as research for Tunisia as a secondary source of information.


- -. “Yemen Profile.” BBC. N.p., 27 Feb. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704951>.

“Established by a Royal Charter, the BBC is a public service broadcaster funded by the licence fee paid by UK households. We use the income from the licence fee to provide services including 10 national TV channels plus regional programming, 10 national radio stations, 40 local radio stations and an extensive website. BBC World Service broadcasts to the world on radio, on TV and online, providing news and information in 27 languages and world service English language. It is currently funded by the licence fee. We also have a commercial arm, BBC Worldwide as well as a number of other commercial ventures. Profits from these activities are returned to the BBC for investment in new programming and services.” This source was used to research Yemen and is a secondary source of information.


Blight, Garry, Sheila Pulham, and Paul Torpey. “Arab spring: An Interactive Timeline of Middle East Protests.” The Guardian. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/mar/22/middle-east-protest-interactive-timeline>.

“Garry Blight is an interactive designer. Sheila Pulham is web executive editor for news. Her interests include foreign affairs and cycling. Paul Torpey is an executive producer for guardian.co.uk. The Manchester Guardian was founded by John Edward Taylor in 1821, and was first published on May 5 of that year. The paper’s intention was the promotion of the liberal interest in the aftermath of the Peterloo Massacre and the growing campaign to repeal the Corn Laws that flourished in Manchester during this period. The Guardian achieved national and international recognition under the editorship of CP Scott, who held the post for 57 years from 1872.” This source was used in the researching of the Arab Spring. This was a secondary source of information.
Central Intelligence Agency. “Syria.” The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency , 12 Mar. 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sy.html>.

“The Central Intelligence Agency was created in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S. Truman. The act also created a Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) to serve as head of the United States intelligence community; act as the principal adviser to the President for intelligence matters related to the national security; and serve as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 amended the National Security Act to provide for a Director of National Intelligence who would assume some of the roles formerly fulfilled by the DCI, with a separate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.” This source was used to research Syria and is a secondary source of information.


- - -. “Tunisia.” The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency, 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ts.html>.

“The Central Intelligence Agency was created in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S. Truman. The act also created a Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) to serve as head of the United States intelligence community; act as the principal adviser to the President for intelligence matters related to the national security; and serve as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 amended the National Security Act to provide for a Director of National Intelligence who would assume some of the roles formerly fulfilled by the DCI, with a separate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.” This source was used as research for Tunisia as a secondary source of information.


“Contemporary History .” Kurdistan Regional Government. Kurdistan Regional Government, 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.krg.org/&#8204;articles/&#8204;detail.asp?lngnr=12&smap=03010600&rnr=143&anr=18710>.

This website is the official database for “Kurdistan,” or the region of the Kurds before the diaspora. This is an accurate website full of fact sheets and news all about and surrounding Kurdistan. On this website you can learn all you ever needed to know about Kurdistan. Originally in Kurdi, this website can be translated into 3 different languages, making a statement that many kinds of people could benefit from the information. This source was used to research Kurdistan and is a secondary source.


“Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988).” Global Securtiy . N.p., 7 Nov. 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/iran-iraq.htm>.

“Everyone is entitled to their own opinion, but not their own facts. We try to bring you the facts, to help you form your opinion. We try to stick to the facts, and let others debate opinion. Knowledge is often power, and it is therefore often helpful to be aware of a broad universe of conflicting results or conflicting opinions rather than having a portion of this information arbitrarily censored by someone else. Frequently one wants to know of the existence of information, even if one later decides not to use it for a particular application. Many would like to see a high percentage of the information available and decide for themselves what to throw out, partly because they don’t want to seem uninformed or be caught by surprise by potentially important information. They are in a better position if they can say: ”I knew about that data, assessed it based on the following quality assurance criteria, and decided not to use it for this application.“ This is especially true for users near the end of long decision processes. Like a library or most large databases, this website contains information of variable quality from quite diverse sources. In compiling this website, mistakes were found in peer reviewed journal articles, as well as in databases with relatively elaborate quality control mechanisms. A few of these were caught and corrected on this website, but undoubtedly others slipped through. Most likely additional transcription errors and typos have been added in some of our efforts. Furthermore, with such complex subject matter, it is not always easy to determine what is correct and what is incorrect, especially with the ”experts“ often disagreeing. It is not uncommon in research for two different researchers to come up with different results that lead them to different conclusions. In compiling this website, we have not tried to resolve such conflicts, but rather simply reported it all. This website is compiled by human beings, mostly by compiling or summarizing what other human beings have written. Therefore, it most likely contains some mistakes and/or potential misinterpretations and should be used primarily as a way to search quickly for basic information and information sources. It should not be viewed as an exhaustive, ”last-word“ source for critical applications (such as those requiring legally defensible information). For critical applications, it is best to use this document to find sources, and then to obtain the original documents and/or talk to the authors before depending too heavily on a particular piece of information.” This source was used to research Iraq and is a secondary source of information.


Jones, Adam. “Case Study: The Anfal Campaign (Iraqi Kurdistan), 1988.” Gendercide Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.gendercide.org/case_anfal.html>.

“Adam is Associate Research Fellow for 2005-07 in the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University, USA. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of British Columbia. He has published three books on genocide: Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2006); Gendercide and Genocide (Vanderbilt University Press, 2004); and Genocide, War Crimes & the West (Zed Books, 2004). He has also published two books on the media and political transition. His writings on gender and international politics have appeared in Journal of Genocide Research, Review of International Studies, Ethnic & Racial Studies, Caribbean Studies, and other publications. (See his website for details.) He is a member of the board of directors of the Gender Issues Education Foundation.” This source was used as research for Kurdistan and is a secondary source of information.


Katzman, Kenneth. “Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy.” US Department of State . N.p., 11 July 2008. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/107203.pdf>.

The US State Department’s mission is to “shape and sustain a peaceful, prosperous, just, and democratic world and foster conditions for stability and progress for the benefit of the American people and people everywhere” THis source was used to research Afghanistan and is a secondary source of information.


“The Kurds (Iraqi Kurdistan).” New York Times. N.p., 4 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://topics.nytimes.com/&#8204;top/&#8204;reference/&#8204;timestopics/&#8204;subjects/&#8204;k/&#8204;kurds/&#8204;index.html>.

The New York Times is a well-known, and prestigious newspaper. It is one of the most influential newspapers in the United States. This source was used to research Kurdistan and is a secondary source.


“Middle East - Israel, Palestine & Lebanon .” Multnomah County Library. N.p., 27 Dec. 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.multcolib.org/guides/conflict/middleeast.html>.

“Multnomah County Library is the oldest public library west of the Mississippi, with a history that reaches back to 1864. Today, Central Library and the other 18 neighborhood libraries that make up the library system house about 700 computer search stations for the public and a collection of two million books and other library materials. As Oregon’s largest public library, Multnomah County Library serves nearly one-fifth of the state’s population with a wide variety of programs and services.” This source was used to research Israel and is a secondary source of information.


Natali, Denise. “Negotiating Kirkuk.” Foreign Policy Journal. N.p., 6 May 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://mideast.foreignpolicy.com/&#8204;posts/&#8204;2011/&#8204;05/&#8204;06/&#8204;negotiating_kirkuk>.

Foreign Policy Journal is an online publication dedicated to providing critical analysis of U.S. foreign policy outside of the standard framework offered by political officials and the mainstream corporate media. This source was used to research Kurdistan and is a secondary source.


“Potential Threats To Israel: Palestinian Terrorist Groups.” Jewish Virtual Library. N.p., 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Threats_to_Israel/Palestinian_Terrorist_Groups.html>.

“The AMERICAN-ISRAELI COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISE (AICE) was established in 1993 as a nonprofit 501(c)(3), nonpartisan organization to strengthen the U.S.-Israel relationship by emphasizing the fundamentals of the alliance — the values our nations share. One of AICE’s principal objectives is to enhance Israel’s image by publicizing novel Israeli approaches to problems common to both our nations and illustrating how Americans can learn from these innovations. AICE also works with individual states that are establishing and expanding their ties with Israel. In particular, we produce reports documenting how these states can and do benefit from cooperation, trade and academic and cultural exchanges with Israel. Reports on cooperation between Israel and all 50 states and the District of Columbia can be found under Israel & the States.” This source was used to research Israel and is a secondary source of information.


Roy, Sonia. “The Kurdish Issue The Impact on the Politics of Iraq and Turkey and Their Bilateral Relations Regarding Kurds Post-Saddam Hussein Regime.” Foreign Policy Journal . N.p., 22 Apr. 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/&#8204;2011/&#8204;04/&#8204;22/&#8204;the-kurdish-issue/>.

Foreign Policy Journal is an online publication dedicated to providing critical analysis of U.S. foreign policy outside of the standard framework offered by political officials and the mainstream corporate media.” This source was used to research Kurdistan and is a secondary source.


Schechter, Danny. “US and Israel: Good cop/bad cop on Iran .” Al Jazeera . N.p., 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/03/2012351441220366.html>.

“Danny Schechter is a journalist, author, television producer and an independent filmmaker who also writes and speaks about economic and media issues. He is the author of 11 books. He is the executive editor of MediaChannel1.org, the world’s largest online media issues network, and recipient of many awards including the Society of Professional Journalists’ 2001 Award for Excellence in Documentary Journalism.” This source was used to research Israel and US involvement in Israel and is a secondary source of information.


“Timeline.” Syrian History. N.p., 2011. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://www.syrianhistory.com/timeline>.

“At the time of writing seven years down the road, Syrianhistory.com has become a household name in Syria. It is frequented often by the young and old and is immensely popular among expatriate Syrians. The website has received memorable coverage in popular Arabic dailies like al-Ahram, Syria-focused blogs like Syriacomment, and landed first page news in the mass circulation London-based al-Hayat. Syriacomment’s Joshua Landis called it a “labor of love” while al-Hayat’s Ibrahim Hamidi described it as “virtual encounter between President Shukri al-Quwatli and President Hafez al-Assad.” One year ago, Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal bought shares in our online museum, making it a member of Haykal Media Group. Hand-in-hand and shoulder-to-shoulder, the three partners, Sahban, Abdulsalam, and I continue to provide a “labor of love” to the proud and rich history of modern Syria. We are now re-launching with a massive collection with new exclusive photos, a larger audiovisual library, a more advanced and user friendly interface, and a version of the website in Arabic.” This source was used for researching Syrian history and is a secondary source of information.


United States Central Intelligence Agency. “Turkey.” The World Factbook. N.p., 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html>.

“The Central Intelligence Agency was created in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S. Truman. The act also created a Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) to serve as head of the United States intelligence community; act as the principal adviser to the President for intelligence matters related to the national security; and serve as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 amended the National Security Act to provide for a Director of National Intelligence who would assume some of the roles formerly fulfilled by the DCI, with a separate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.” This source was used to research Turkey and it is a secondary source of information.


Washington Post. “Who Are the Kurds? .” Washington Post. N.p., 1999. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/daily/feb99/kurdprofile.htm>.

“The Washington Post was first published in 1877. It contained four pages and cost three cents per copy. In 1933, Eugene Meyer purchased the paper and instilled the timeless principles of integrity and social responsibility. Now a news & information company, operating 24/7 on multiple platforms, these principles continue to guide the news organization today. The work we do at The Washington Post supports journalism that makes a difference, that rights wrongs and brings about change. Journalism that helps make an increasingly complex world more understandable, whether that’s uncovering a misuse of power, or explaining how a Federal tax cut will affect your wallet. In 2008, The Post was awarded a record six Pulitzer prizes. Notably, these were in categories across the board, for Public Service, Breaking News, National Reporting, International Reporting, Feature Writing and Commentary. We continue to strive for excellence on all platforms including the web, in print and on your mobile phone.” This source was used as research for Kurdistan and is a secondary source of information.


“Water in Palestine.” If Americans Knew. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ifamericansknew.org/cur_sit/water.html>.

“The mission of If Americans Knew is to inform and educate the American public on issues of major significance that are unreported, underreported, or misreported in the American media. It is our belief that when Americans know the facts on a subject, they will, in the final analysis, act in accordance with morality, justice, and the best interests of their nation, and of the world. With insufficient information, or distorted information, they may do the precise opposite. It is the mission of If Americans Knew to ensure that this does not happen – that the information on which Americans base their actions is complete, accurate, and undistorted by conscious or unconscious bias, by lies of either commission or omission, or by pressures exerted by powerful special interest groups. It is our goal to supply the information essential to those responsible for the actions of the strongest nation on earth – the American people.” This source was used to research Palestine and amounts of water present in Palestine. This is a secondary source of information. NATIONAL HISTORY STANDARDS
2B: Analyze how the oil crisis and its aftermath in the early 1970s revealed the extent and complexity of global economic interdependence.
2C: Assess the progress of human and civil rights around the world since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights.
2C: Assess the success of democratic reform movements in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2D: Analyze why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries.
2D: Analyze the causes, consequences, and moral implications for the world community of mass killings or famines in such places as Cambodia, Somalia, Rwanda, and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
2F: Describe ways in which art, literature, religion, and traditional customs have expressed or strengthened national or other communal loyalties in recent times.
3A: Analyze causes and consequences of the world’s shift from bipolar to multipolar centers of economic, political, and military power.
3A: Analyze connections between globalizing trends in economy, technology, and culture in the late 20th century and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness. YOUR UNIT PROJECT ASSIGNMENT:
REVIEW THIS WHOLE PREZI, EXPLORING ALL OF THE RECENT CONFLICTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. CHOOSE 1 CONFLICT AND CLAIM IT BY MARKING IT WITH YOUR GROUP LEADER'S NAME. SMALL GROUPS WILL CREATE AN INTERACTIVE LESSON TO TEACH THE CLASS ABOUT THE CONFLICT (to be approved by me before you begin!)
REQUIREMENTS:
1) Transform at least one of the national history standards into an essential question to be answered by your lesson.
2) Use a lesson plan template to outline your teachable lesson
3) create a 50-point grading rubric with which I can evaluate your lesson
4) Use a new technology we have not tried before in our class! This technology must not be simply used to present the lesson but also to engage the students. Don't use technology for the sake of using technology. It must enhance your lesson and the learning process!
5) Your lesson must feature critical thinking and problem-solving! Will you create a competitive game? A simulation? A debate? Or something entirely new and different which we haven't experimented with yet? The choice is yours!
RESOURCES: To get some ideas, start with http://historytech.wordpress.com/2011/02/21/10-great-resources-for-teaching-about-the-middle-east/. Lesson Planning Form
Teachers/Presenters:
Start Date:
End Date:
Class/Level: 8th Grade Honors
History Lesson Title:
Established Goals (National History Standards):
Central Themes include:
Essential Question(s) to be Answered:
Assessment Evidence:
Learning Plan:
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