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Art History Project

by Kristy, Wyan, Tannuh, and Megs

Kristy Ho

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Art History Project

The Geometric Art Period The Hellenistic Art Period 900 BC to 700 BC. 323-146 BCE Started with the death of Alexander the Great Classical Period (ca. 480-323 B.C.) Vases Amphora of 8th c.BC from the Archaeological Museum of Eleusis with geometric motifs a project by MEGS. Kristy HOOOOOOO TanTan Lindberg Uncle Ryan With the Early geometrical style, one finds only abstract motifs, in what is called the “Black Dipylon” style, which is characterized by an extensive use of black varnish am·pho·ra
A tall ancient Greek or Roman jar with two handles and a narrow neck. ( ) The Hellenistic period moved away from classical art in that emotion was utilized in art more readily and often, with an extreme style of art. the archaeic period 800 BC – 480 BC Terracotta loutrophoros (ceremonial vase for water)
Period: Archaic Date: late 6th century B.C. Culture: Greek, Attic Around the mid-eighth century BCE the human form of the Geometric period began to develop on Dipylon vases. These vases are very large in size (nearly two meters) and were used as grave markers, with craters marking the places of males and amphorae marking those of females. The vases were originally found in the Kerameikos cemetery in
Athens . Bronze hydria (water jar), late 7th–early 6th century B.C. (Greek. Bronze) Kerameikos A woman's head, shown from the neck up, appears at the bottom. Six long, hatched braids frame her face on both sides and she wears a headdress known as a polos, on top of her head. The polos typically is worn by goddesses. welcome to Loutrophoroi were used to fetch water for the bridal bath and for certain funerary rites. This vase may have been used in rituals at the grave, for it was made with no bottom so that offerings poured into it could reach the dead under ground. It is decorated with scenes of the ceremonies that preceded burial. Sculptures

Curved forms and perfect symmetry epitomized the Geometric style. The overall look of Geometric art is highly reminiscent of the Mycenaean and Cycladic styles. References: Coldstream, John N. (1979, 2003). Geometric Greece: 900-700 BC. London, UK: Routledge Whitley, James. The Archaeology of Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Sculptures The Hellenistic period is characterized by extreme realism- almost to a point of ugliness. The development of the portrait and the domestication of the sculpture also rose in this period. Being a patron of the arts also became popular, and therefore art flourished. Discobulus (Discus-Thrower) http://greekart5.tripod.com/id6.html Sources Charioteer of Delphi Parthenon Temple of Zeus Vases Achilles Painter Name Vase Architecture Calyx-Krater With Theatrical Scene
Hellenistic sculpture differed from Archaic and Egyptian art in that it was more realistic and movement oriented. Hellenistic statues often have the characteristic of "Contrapposto', where the person depicted is resting on one foot, to show relaxation, a more human quality. Human qualities became the center stage in sculpture, as emotions and inner character, as humanism comes into play. http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/westciv/hellenisticsculpture.html Sculpture Marble stele (grave marker) of a youth and a little girl
Period: Archaic Date: ca. 530 B.C. (ca. 470 B.C.E.) (ca. 470 B.C.E.) (ca. 447-438 B.C.E.) The Dying Gaul
Epigonus, Court sculptor..?
220 BC
Done in bronze Increased contact with the East through trade and colonization in the seventh century exposed Greek artists to new ideas and motifs in sculpture and painting. Greek artists also developed an interest in showing the anatomy of figures in greater detail. during the later part of the 7th century BCE, following right after the Geometric period. (ca. 470-445 B.C.E.) The youth on the shaft is shown as an athlete, with an aryballos (oil flask) suspended from his wrist. Athletics were an important part of every boy's education, and oil was used as a cleanser after exercise. He holds a pomegranate—a fruit associated with both fecundity and death in Greek myths—perhaps indicating that he had reached puberty before his death. In the Dying Gaul, emotion is shown as never before. The statue has somewhat of an ideal body, yet he is shown in a vulnerable position and has the emotion of defeat on his face. ORIENTALIZING PERIOD (700 - 600 BC) Here's a sculpture from the Orientalizing Period! The Venus Di Milo
150 BC
statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo, from Thebes, Greece, ca. 700-680 BCE. Bronze, approx. 8" high. Mantiklos Apollo This sculpture - a fine example of "in the round" sculpture perfected during this period- shows the emotion potrayed. Even though she is presented as a goddess, Venus still has a sense of character and humanism- she is relaxing on one foot- Contrapposto Hellenistic Architecture is often shown with three orders, or various canons of columns in architecture: Doric order, Ionic order, and Corinthian order. Many buildings were built with luxury and design in mind: many of them featuring motifs of gods and nature, and many of them having uses such as temples, theaters, or sporting arenas. Religious buildings were built to provoke emotion and thought in the human mind. Slender columns and delicate detail were prominent in this time period. Arches and vaults began to make way, and spaces seemed wider thanks to the widening of intercolumniation. The columns were a part of the post and lintel system, and the dome and pediment were also popular. The most prominent theme of the period: extremes. Architecture The Altar Of Zeus at Pergamon
175 BCE
Marble http://sasgreekart.pbworks.com/w/page/10150020/Pergamon Massive proportions, shows the tendency of the architects of the time to lean towards the extremes. Reliefs on the wall are classic Hellenism: portraying the Gods. Ionic columns are used. Friezes cover the building, depicting a war between the gods. It features a cella, another characteristic of architecture of the time. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grarc/hd_grarc.htm http://wadsworth.com/art_d/templates/student_resources/0495004782_kleiner/studyguide/ch05w/ch05_2.html References: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art/chiarioteer.html Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, approx.. 6’4” high.
Liberated from there original stone block. Nude and showing motion. Temple of Olympian Zeus
2nd Century AD
Limestone "The Lady of Auxerre, masterpiece of the Daedalic style" the Louvre art historians refer to this early Greek style as Daedalic, after the legendary artist Daedalus, whose name means "the skillful one" FUN FACT! (ca. 450-445 B.C.E.) it depicts an archaic Greek goddess of c. 650 - 625 BC. It is a Kore ("maiden"), perhaps a votary rather than the maiden Goddess Persephone herself Ionic capital, torus (foliated base), and parts of a fluted column shaft from the Temple of Artemis at Sardis, 4th century B.C.
Greek, Lydian
Marble http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_of_Auxerre This column was once part of the Temple of Artemis at Sardis, one of the cities of western Asia Minor in which Greek influence was continually interwoven with local tradition. After the conquest of Alexander the Great, Sardis became part of the Seleucid empire, which spanned Asia Minor, the Levant, Persia, and as far east as India. The temple was started but not continued during the classical years, because classical Greek democracy did not agree with the exaggerated proportions and scale of the temple, a classic characteristic of Hellenistic architecture. The temple originally had 104 Corinthian style columns, (another characteristic of architecture in this period), which was reduced to 15 columns standing today, with corinthian caps still in place. It featured a cella with a golden statue of Zeus himself, but was destroyed. Architectural tile fragment, 6th century B.C.
Greek, Lydian; Excavated at Sardis
Terracotta with red and black painted decoration The Lydian kingdom was known for its wealth and receptiveness to Greek culture. The motifs on this tile are part of the repertoire in eastern Greek art that eventually became popular throughout the Greek world. Lotus blossoms, like the ones depicted on this tile, also decorate Greek jewelry and vases from this period. Archaic and later Greek temples were built of more permanent limestone, and in many cases marble. These stone temples were embellished with sculptures and statues. These temples also began to use the columns that would become influential in Western Architecture. back to the Geometric Period! Vases from the Archaic period, like the sculptures, used elongated figure to show motion. The artwork on these vases usually depict daily activities such as dice games and hunting. Many portrayals of Minotaurs, Centaurs, and other religious figures are present in Archaic vases. Making a vase included a potter sculpting the body and a specialist painting the vase. Statuette of a Horse The Hellenistic period saw a decline in the creation of vases, as extreme architecture and sculpture in the round became popular. Vases became uniform and often black, with reliefs of flowers and other motifs on top. Polychromatic vases became more popular, as artists looked for a larger variety of colors. Vases were either "baroque" or more simplistic. Pottery often imitated metal vessels. The Archaic period contains sculptures that are less rigid than the Egyptian ones that preceded them. While these sculptures (depicting people) are much more realistic, they are still idealized. Figures are often shown with toned bodies and flat faces, which are hallmarks of the Daedalic style. Statues, like the vase paintings, depicted figures performing daily activities. They were made by liberating the statue from its original stone. Vases http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/gr/w/west_slope_ware_jug_oinochoe.aspx 'West Slope' ware jug (oinochoe)
with a gorgon's head on the neck
200-150 BC Features black-glaze decorating- a characteristic of Hellenistic pottery, as well as relief and polychromatic detail of a gorgon- a mythological creature associated with Medusa and Crete - a major producer of pottery during this time. http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/gr/c/clay_ground_hadra_water-jar.aspx Clay ground 'Hadra' water-jar (hydria),
attributed to the Dromeus Painter Crete
200 BC This vase was made to hold the ashes of Dorotheos. Hadra is named after the Alexandrian cemetery of Hadra. Most of these vases were made to hold the ashes of foreign ambassadors who died while away. The figures are done in black glazing, and motifs of bulls, swans, and plunging dolphins are distinctly Hellenistic and Grecian, as they depict natural scenes around Crete and mythological scenes. 8th c. "Nikandre daughter of Deinodikos the Naxian; outstanding amongst women, sister of Deinomenes and now wife of Phraxos,
dedicated me to the far-shooting archeress." http://www.classics.cam.ac.uk:8080/collections/casts/kore-nikandre http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/gr/d/discus-thrower_discobolus.aspx Architecture: http://www.olympia-greece.org/templezeus.html http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/parthenon.html http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/24.97.104 Sculpted out of marble, the Discobulus shown here is a Roman copy of the original bronze sculpture by the artist, Myron. The sculpture depicts an idealized disc-thrower from the Roman Pentathons, marathons consisting of five different events. The seemingly perfect proportions of the muscles show that he was good in several events instead of having one set of overdeveloped muscles like those who trained for a particular event. It was based on geometric designs--triangles, dots, and straight and angled lines: Geometric Art is a phase of Greek art, characterized largely by geometric motifs in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BCE to 700 BCE. Its center was in Athens, and it was diffused amongst the trading cities of the Aegean. http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3753872 The Charioteer of Delphi was cast in bronze and is a great representation of the Severe Style, which is defined by its look of calm and balance. The sculpture depicts the winner of chariot race presenting his chariot and horses to the crowd. It maintains a sense of realism while showcasing his controlled emotions, which was a sign of civilized man in ancient Greece. Over time he has lost his left arm, but remains otherwise unscathed. naaaaay (ca. 470-456 B.C.E.) The Temple Of Zeus was designed by the architect Libon of Elis and had an east-west orientation. It was another example of the Severe Style of Classical Greek art. On the east pediment was depicted the chariot race between Pelops and Oinomaus while on the west pediment was the battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs. On the twelve metopes were the Labours of Hercules, mortal son of Zeus. The Parthenon was presumably dedicated to Athena, the Greek god of wisdom. It contained several massive limestone foundations and columns made of pentelic marble. It was designed by the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates in order to shelter the monumental statue of Athena. Geometric krater from the
Dipylon cemetery This funerary vessel, also from the Dipylon cemetery depicting a burial procession. This calyx-krater, or mixing bowl, has a theatrical scene, presumably from a Greek phlyax (play), depicted on it. It was from South Italian, Apulian and was crafted from terracotta by a Tarporley Painter. The characters from the phlyax are all wearing masks and are telling the story of a tragedy. The middle character is being punished for stealing goods, which are shown on the table to the right, and the right character is saying that they will testify. The left character is the thief’s guard and punisher. characteristics: -bronze and terracotta
-painted scenes on monumental vessels attest to a renewed interest in figural imagery that focuses on funerary rituals
-lack of inscriptions
- figure painting was revived Greeces First Stone Temples A plan of "Temple A", stone temple, at Prinias on Crete. 625 BCE This amphora is one of several hundred crafted by an unknown Greek artist. This particular amphora was used for storage and display and depicts Achilles, Greek hero of the Trojan War, posing heroically while holding weapons such as a scabbard sword and an elongated spear. Lintel of Temple A Prinias, Greece \ c. 625 BCE -Greek trading colony of Naukratis in Egypt brought the Greeks monumental stone architeture of the Egyptions -form resembles a typical Mycenaean megaron -flat roofs References: Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Twelfth Edition VASES SCULPTURES!!!! ARCHITECTURE? {a brief and sensual history of greek art} 1 2 3 4 Thank you for watching! 8==D 0
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