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Copy of Principles of Training

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Nicholas Howson

on 19 October 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Principles of Training

Training is a programme of exercise designed to help you reach your fitness goals or targets. In order to ensure that a fitness training or exercise programme is safe and effective, it is vital that certain guiding principles are applied.
Principles of Training
These Principles include:
Specificity
Progression
Overload
Reversibility
Tedium
Adaptation

S P O R T
Specificity can be described as the specific effect each type of training has on your body. Training must be matched to the needs to the sporting activity to improve fitness in the body parts used.
Specificity
Can you think of a training method/type of exercise
specific to your sport? Why is it specific?
What about for
these sports?
Progression
Start activities slowly, gradually increasing the amount of exercise or intensity of exercise as body becomes used to work load
During a weight training programme there is no advantage to bicep curling 10kg during one session and then 50kgs the next session. The chances are that the performer will not be successful and will therefore become de-motivated or injure themselves.

The same is true when learning new skills and developing those skills to an advanced form. There is no point trying the advanced form first, start from the beginning and progress over the weeks.
How could you progress a training
programme
from week 1 to week 6?
Fitness can only be improved by training harder than you usually do. Overloading body systems with higher work rates causes the body to respond to these extra demands by improving performance
Overload
Ways to gain
overload
Frequency
Intensity
Time
Type
The number of times training occurs.

As the levels of performance raise then the frequency of training is often increased.
What is the recommended frequency of exercise?
Increasing the intensity requires you to raise the work load. This could be achieved by increasing the distance run or increasing the weight used in a session.
How else could you increase the intensity of an activity?

How would you increase the intensity of a training programme for your sport?
The duration of training is determined by the activity and fitness of the performer.

Increasing the time of the activity is another way of overloading the body.
How long would a session be for an amateur boxer compared with a professional boxer?
The type of activity will also effect the overload. Some activities will require longer, more frequent sessions than others.
Reversibility can be described as the process of losing fitness, soon after stopping regular training or exercise. It is easier to lose fitness than it is to build it up; if you stop exercising, the fitness you gained will be lost in a third of the time it took to build up!
Reversibility
Case study:
How do you think reversibility affects
skill level?

Can skill level be reversed?
The effects of a long period on inactivity on physical fitness comes from a
UK base study of an Olympic rower, who after 8 weeks away from training,
took 20 weeks to full recover his fitness.


After 8 weeks not training the results were:
Decreased V02 peak by 8%
Power at peak oxygen consumption fell 20%
Power at peak blood lactate levels decreased 27%

Researchers recommended that training programs should limit periods of inactivity to no more than 2 to 3 weeks.
Tedium
Tedium refers to the possibility
of an athlete getting bored during training.
If an athlete is repeating the same activity 3-4 time a week,
there is a chance boredom and frustration may develop.
How can we combat tedium in a training programme?
Training should be varied to keep the athlete interested and motivated!
How the Pro's
do it!

Using the following sports, discuss how the training requirements are different for each of them:
Games player

100m Sprinter

10,000m runner

Tennis player
Type up your planning -stations and the reasons why you have selected them. Suggest starting levels e.g. repetitions and sets for each station.
Adaptation
The body will react to the training loads imposed by increasing its ability to cope with those loads.

Adaptation occurs during the recovery period after the training session is completed.
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