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Sentence Structure

Subject, Predicate, and Complement
by

Andy Good

on 19 August 2016

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Transcript of Sentence Structure

Subject, Predicate, and Complement
Sentence Structure
Group of words containing the following:
The Sentence
1. Subject
2. Verb
3. Expresses a complete thought
Missing a Piece?
Without all of these pieces, you have a FRAGMENT.
Sentence:
We

looked
into the room.
Fragment: The
room
with the high ceiling.
Subject
Verb
Complete Thought
Subject...
...but where's the rest?
Remember - subject, verb, complete thought, capitalized and punctuated.
Revise these fragments by making them
COMPLETE SENTENCES
1. on Monday or later this week.

2. patiently waiting for the mail carrier.

3. will you be there tomorrow

4. four people in a small car.

5. just yesterday I discovered

6. it runs smoothly.
4. Capitalization and punctuation
A sentence consists of two parts:
Further Breakdown:
Subject and Predicate
Subject
Predicate
Names the person or thing spoken about in the rest of the sentence.
Says something about the subject, completes the thought.
Coyotes

were howling in the distance
.
The telephone in the lobby

rang
.
The woman in the red blouse

is my aunt
.
Subject - the who or what
Predicate - says something about the subject
Subject
Predicate
Subject
Predicate
Main word/words being discussed in the sentence
Simple Subject
Simple Predicate
The sentence is about the simple subject.
Also known as the VERB
Don't forget about VERB PHRASES
A black wolf was howling at the moon.
The club officers can make the pizza.
Was your son the person who won the match?
The military choir stood on the stage.
The warm-weather sport of surfing is powered by the force of incoming waves.
Surfers can pursue their sport with a surfboard, a vest, a swimsuit, and a safety line.
The ambulance raced out of the hospital driveway and down the crowded street.
The band should have played "The Final Countdown."
S. S. =
S. S. =
S. S. =
S. S. =
S. P. =
S. P. =
S. P. =
S. P. =
Identify each as either a SENTENCE or a FRAGMENT.
Sentence or Fragment?
Do so by identifying the simple subject and the simple predicate.
1. Jazz music filled the room.

2. Supporting the other instruments, the piano carried the melody.

3. The saxophonist, with lazy, lingering notes.

4. Beside him, the bass player added depth to the band.

5. A female vocalist with a throaty voice.

6. Charmed the audience with her delivery.

7. However, the star of the show was the drummer.

8. She stayed in the background.

9. Until the last half-hour.

10. The she dazzled everyone with her brilliant, high-speed technique.
The subject is NEVER in a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE.
Finding the Subject
1. All prepositional phrases should be placed in PARENTHESIS.
2. Find the verb.
3. Ask "Who" or "What" followed by the verb.
4. The answer is the subject.
The price
(of those tapes)

seemed
too high
(to us)
.
Verb - Who or What seemed?
Subject - Price seemed
Here you
can swim
year round.
Verb - Who or What can swim?
Subject - You can swim
Most
(of the family)

voted
.
Verb - Who or what voted?
Subject - Most voted
The prepositional phrase begins with the PREPOSITION and ends with the OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION.
Remember...
The subject will NEVER be in the PREP. PHRASE!
Have you heard
(of Nellie Bly)
?
(Under her management) (as corporation president)
, the company sold millions
(of products)
.
(Around the corner) (from here)
is a store.
Use the same formula.
Sentences That Ask Questions
1. Eliminate prepositional phrases.
2. Find the verb.
3. Ask "Who" or "What" followed by the verb.
4. The answer is your subject.
How
is
the movie different?
Does
she
have
a ride home?
Was the train late?
Has she answered the letter?
Verb Phrase - Who or What does have?
Subject - She does have
Verb - Who or what is?
Subject - Movie is
Who's got it?
How about this one?
Below you will find changes to the Pennsylvania Junior Driver Passenger Restrictions. In each sentence, identify both the
SUBJECT
and the
SIMPLE PREDICATE
in the underlined portion of each sentence.
1.Act 81 places increased restrictions on the number and age of passengers which a junior driver license holder may transport.
Subject: Simple Predicate:
2.Current law limits drivers under the age of 18 to transporting no more passengers than the number of seat belts in the vehicle.
Subject: Simple Predicate:
3.As of Dec. 27, 2011, for the first six months after receiving their junior driver’s license, a driver is not permitted to have more than one passenger under age 18 who is not an immediate family member (brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister of the junior driver and adopted or foster children living in the same household as the junior driver) in their vehicle unless they are accompanied by a parent or legal guardian.
Subject: Simple Predicate:
4.If they have not been convicted of a driving violation or been partially or fully responsible for a reportable crash after six months, they may have up to three passengers under age 18 who are not immediate family members without a parent or legal guardian present.
Subject: Simple Predicate:
5.If they have any convictions or are partially or fully responsible for a reportable crash while a junior driver, they are once again restricted to one passenger.
Subject: Simple Predicate:

Use the SAME FORMULA!!!
Sentences Beginning with "There" and "Here"
"There" and "here" are expletives - they WILL NOT be the subject.
There
is
a drawbridge
(over the river)
.
There
are
insects
(in our garden)
.
There was a clerk
(at the counter)
.
Verb - Who or what is?
Subject - Drawbridge is
Verb - Who or what are?
Subject - Insects are
Verb - Who or what was?
Subject - Clerk was
Time to Practice!
Identify the SIMPLE SUBJECT and the VERB in each of the following sentences:
1. There are many questions about American history in my book.

2. Naturally, there are answers, too.

3. Under whose flag did Columbus sail?

4. Where is Plymouth Rock?

5. How much do you know about the Lost Colony?

6. Was there a disagreement among settlers in Massachusetts?

7. What kinds of schools did the colonists' children attend?

8. How did people travel in colonial America?
In a request or command, the subject may be omitted from the sentence.
The Understood Subject - YOU!
Get me a towel, please!
Go to your room!
Please answer the phone.
In these cases, the subject is understood as YOU.
The command is directed at "YOU."
The subject is then identified by placing the word You in parenthesis. (You)
(You)
(You)
(You)
Objects are complements that don't refer to the subject.
Objects
Compounds
Two or more...
Compound Subjects
Compound Verbs
Two or more subjects
Joined by a conjunction
Share a verb(s)
Antony
and
Mae

baked
the bread.
Either
Jack
or
Jason

won
the gold medal.
Verb - Who or what baked?
Compound Subject - Both share the same verb
Verb - Who or what won?
Compound Subject - Jack and Jason share the verb
Two or more verbs
Joined by conjunction
Share the subject(s)
Jim Thorpe

entered
and
won
several events in the olympics.
The
committee

met, voted
on the issue, and
adjourned
.
Compound verb - Who or what entered and won?
Subject - Jim Thorpe entered and won
Compound verb - Who or what met, voted, and adjourned?
Subject - Committee met, voted, and adjourned
Identify the
SUBJECTS
and
VERBS
in each sentence below:
1. Moles and bats supposedly have very poor eyesight.

2. April, May, and June are the best months for studying wildflowers in Texas.

3. Kettles of soup and trays of sandwiches were prepared.

4. Both you and I should go downtown.

5. Visit, shop, and relax.

6. At the fair, Dan ran faster than the other boys and on the prize of twenty-five dollars.

7. This kitchen appliance will slice, dice, or chop.

8. Either pick your socks up and put them in the hamper or go barefoot for the rest of your life.
Complements
Complements complete the meaning of the predicate. They add clarity to the sentence and add to the complete thought
This
stew

tastes

strange
.
She
always
was
a
leader
.
I
told

them
.
Marcella

might become
a
chemist
.
The
cat

watched

us
.
Subject
Subject
Subject
Subject
Subject
Verb
Verb
Verb
Verb
Verb
Complement
Complement
Complement
Complement
Complement
Subject Complements
These only deal with
LINKING VERBS
.
They describe or identify the simple subject when used with a
LINKING VERB
.
Use the same formula as before, just add a step:
1. Isolate the prep. phrases.
2. Find the verb.
3. Ask who or what + verb to find subject
4. SUBJECT + VERB + WHO OR WHAT to find complement
Mark Twain's real
name

was

Samuel Clemens
.
The
surface

felt

sticky.
Linking verb = was
Who or what was? = name was
Name was who or what? = Samuel Clemens
Linking verb = felt
Who or what felt? = Surface
Surface felt who or what? = sticky
Predicate Adjectives (P.A.)
Adjective(s) in the predicate.
Modifies the subject.
The soup is
hot
.
The soil seems awfully
dry
.
hot
is in the predicate.
It's an adjective.
It modifies the subject
soup
dry
is in the predicate.
It's an adjective.
It modifies the subject
soil
Predicate Nominatives (P.N.)
Noun or pronoun in the predicate.
Refers to the subject.
A whale is a
mammal
.
Angela has become a very talented
soloist
.
mammal
is in the predicate.
It's a noun.
It refers to the subject
whale
soloist
is in the predicate.
It's a noun.
It refers to the subject
Angela
Okay, time to test your mettle. Identify the
VERB
,
SUBJECT
, and
COMPLEMENT
in each sentence. Also identify if it is a
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE
or a
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE
.
1. Does the lemonade taste too sour?

2. The constant chirping of the birds became more and more shrill.

3. The window washer on the fifteenth floor appeared tiny.

4. Why does he always look so serious?

5. Our candidate for the city council was the winner in the primaries.

6. You should feel proud of yourself for keeping your word.

7. Will the hall monitors be Charlene and Terry?

8. Soft and cool was the grass under the tree.

9. Be a friend to animals.

10. The crowd gre quiet when Governor Markham began the speech.
They only occur with ACTION VERBS.
Lee Trevino

sank
the
putt.
Her
poem

won
an
award
.
Verb = sank is an action
Subject = Who or what sank?
Object = not related to subject
Verb = won is an action
Subject = Who or what won?
Object = not related to poem
Two Types...
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Noun or pronoun
Receives action from the verb
Answers "Whom" or "What" after VERB
Noun or pronoun
Works with a Direct Object
Answers "to whom", "for whom", "to what", or "for what" after the D.O.
Lucy

visited

me
.
Germs

cause

illness
.
Josh

was riding
his
bicycle
.
Cannot be part of a prepositional phrase
Cannot be part of a prepositional phrase
Action Verb
Subject = Who or what visited?
Direct Object = visited whom or what?
Action verb
Subject = who or what cause?
Direct Object = cause whom or what?
Action verb
Subject = who or what was riding?
Direct object = was riding whom or what?
My little
sister

sang
me a
song
.
Sheila

told
the children a
story
.
Natalie

knitted
her friend a
sweater
.
Action Verb
Subject
D.O.
Indirect Object = a song to whom or for whom?
Action Verb
Subject
D. O.
Indirect Object = a story to whom or for whom?
Action verb
Subject
D.O.
Indirect Object = a sweater to whom or for whom?
Practice Time! Identify the
VERB, SUBJECT
, and
DIRECT OBJECT
in each sentence.
1. This article gives interesting facts about libraries.

2. The city of Alexandria, in Egypt, had the most famous library of ancient times.

3. This library contained the largest collection of plays and works of philosophy in the ancient world.

4. The Roman emperor Augustus founded two public libraries.

5. Fire destroyed all of these libraries.

6. Readers could not borrow books from either the library in Alexandria or the Roman libraries.

7. During the Middle Ages, the monastery libraries introduced the idea of a circulating library.

8. By the sixth century, Benedictine monks were borrowing books from their libraries.

9. Nowadays in the United States, we have thousands of circulating libraries.

10. Readers borrow millions of books from them every year.
Identify the complements! Identify each complement in the following sentences and designate each as either a P.N. , P.A., D.O., or I.O.
1. My brother made Mom a birthday cake.

2. However, the project soon became a fiasco.

3. First, Bill cracked three eggs into a bowl.

4. Then he added the flour and other dry ingredients.

5. The electric mixer whirled the batter right onto the ceiling.

6. The batter was so sticky that it stayed there.

7. Mom was not angry.

8. She did give bill a suggestion for a gift.

9. "A clean kitchen would be a great birthday present!"
SENTENCE TYPES!!!!
Last, but not least...
Declarative - makes a statement
Imperative - gives a command or makes a request
Interrogative - asks a question
Exclamatory - expresses strong feeling
Dr. Yalow won a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1977.
Please open your books to page 529.
Do you think we'll get done in time?
These are the best notes ever!
That's it!
Time for another quiz!
Textbook - page 500-501, 2nd attempt
Full transcript