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RFA Building the New Nation
Transcript of RFA Building the New Nation
Launching the New Ship of State
The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Democracy
The Second War
The Ferment of
Reform and Culture
1. G. Washington
2. J. Adams
3. T. Jefferson
4. J. Madison
5. J. Monroe
6. J.Q. Adams
7. A. Jackson
8. M. Van Buren
9. W. H. Harrison
10. J. Polk
11. Z. Taylor
12. F. Pierce
13. J. Buchanan
14. A. Lincoln
Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division LC-USZ62-7585 DLC
The First Cabinet
Tariffs and Taxes
Jay's Treaty 1794
Proclaimation of Neutrality 1793
Kept U.S. neutral in the European Wars
Extolls the benefits of the federal government.
"The unity of government...is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence...of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize."
Warns against the party system.
"It serves to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration....agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one....against another....it opens the door to foreign influence and corruption...thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another."
Stresses the importance of religion and morality.
"Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?"
On stable public credit.
"...cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible...avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt....it is essential that you...bear in mind, that towards the payments of debts there must be Revenue, that to have Revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised, which are not...inconvenient and unpleasant..."
Warns against permanent foreign alliances.
"It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world..."
On an over-powerful military establishment.
"...avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty."
Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson, 1789
Secretary of the Treasury- Alexander Hamilton, 1789
Secretary of War- Henry Knox, 1789
Attorney General- Edmund Randolph, 1789
Needed to pay off the states debts
The First States Bail-out
For a Strong Federal Government
The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American West
A commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and Canada
A commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence.
II. Whiskey Rebellion 1794
How did our
new government begin?
Secretary of Treasury
Member of the First and
Second Continental Congress
Treaty of Paris
First Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court
Wrote portions of
The Federalist Papers
Oil on canvas
New-York Historical Society Museum, Gift of John Pintard, 1817.5
Warned against "entangling alliances"
warned of Political Party factions
Relations with Britain, included
-seizure from American ships of cargoes unrelated to war
-impressment of American seamen
-continuing British occupation of western U.S.
I. Shay's Rebellion 1786-87
Group of farmers protesting taxation of land in Massachusetts
Articles could not protect the citizens
Rebellion on Hamiltons Whiskey Tax
Washington federalized the militia
was the first test of federal authority
established federal government's right to enforce laws
Judiciary Act of 1789
Land Ordinance of 1785
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798-99
Judiciary Act of 1801
Embargo act of 1807
Non- Intercourse Act 1809
divided and organized
sold land to raise
revenue for the
and public school
set up a plan to admit new states into the Union
Slavery not allowed in the new territories
Provided for a Supreme court with a Chief Justice and five associates
Created federal courts
Established office of attorny General
Used to help federalists keep power
used to silence Jeffersonian Republicans
Limited the 1st ammendment rights
led to Marbury v. Madison
law where john Adams filled judge vacancies with political supporters
Trade boycott on Britain and France
response to the Napoleonic wars
repealed in 1810
American declaration to keep its own ships from leaving port for any foreign destination
Hoped to avoid the Napoleonic wars
Led to Economic Depression
War of 1812
How did Jefferson change
Alien and Sedition Acts
III. Fries Rebellion
Over a federal "house" tax
ended with political trials
Undelcared war with France
led to the XYZ affair
ended with the Convention of 1800
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Declaration of Independence
"Revolution of 1800"
Marbury v. Madison
wanted centralized power
believed the federal government received all powers that the Constitution did not deny it.
Suspicious of a far off centralized government
opposed a central bank
lstarted out as Anti Federalists
supported by the "common people"
Father of the Constitution
led US in War of 1812
Opponets saw programs as aiding the elite
established Judicial Review
Chief justice 1801-1835
Marbury v. Madison
Fletcher v. Peck
Boston College v. Woodward
McCulloch v. Maryland
Gibbons v. Odgen
first time state law was voided on the grounds that it violated the constitution
Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts
Georgia Legislature issued land grants in a corrupt deal
a legislative session repealed the action
Supreme Court decided the original cdontract was valid
Articles of Confederation 1776
The Constitution of the United States 1787
Separation of Powers
Bill of Rights
guaranteed individual rights
1. freedom of speech
2. Right to bear arms
5. right to not testify against yourself in court
10. elastic clause
Wrote Federalist Papers
Agreement to stop arming ships on the great lakes
Between US and Spain
allowed free navigation of Mississippi
US gained areas of Florida (Mississippi and Alabama)
Heled define US Mexico Border
Spain sold Florida to US
US gave up claims on Texas, N Mexico, and California
US wanted to end French harrassment of American ships
French demanded a bribe to even speak with French Minister Talleyrand
US refused the bribe and suspended trade with France
Led to US Navy
"Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute"
Native American Chief who was encouraged by the British forces to Fight against removal from western territories
William Henry Harrison destroyed Native American Confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe
V. Napoleonic Wars 1799-1815
War between France and Europe
No freedom of the seas
both sides didnt want enemies to trade with neutral powers
planned to take Mexico and establish a new country
was arrested and tried for treason
acquitted under John Marshall
Response to Alien and Sedition Acts
suggested that states have the right to nullify federal law in their territory
the federal govt. had no right to exercise powers not delegated to it
used later in the lead up to the civil war
claaed into question the elastic clause and the 10th ammendment
The Naturalization Act -extended the duration of residence required for aliens to become citizens of the United States from five years to fourteen years.
The Alien Friends Act -authorized the president to deport any resident alien considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States." It was activated June 25, 1798, with a two year expiration date.
The Alien Enemies Act - authorized the president to apprehend and deport resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the United States of America. Enacted July 6, 1798
The Sedition Act -made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. It was enacted July 14, 1798, with an expiration date of March 3, 1801 (the day before Adams' presidential term was to end).
Marbury v. Madison
commissioned Justice of the peeace for DC
part of the midnight appointments
Commission was not delivered
while Marbury was entitled to the comission the statue that allowed the remedy was unconstitutional as it granted more power to the supreme court that constitutional
gave supreme courts power to decide if a law is constitutional
Bought for 15 million
Jefferson used the power of presidential treaty making
expanded the power of the President
territory was doubled
removed France from the west
gave US New Orleans
created more states with Jeffersonian Republican representation
Lewis and Clark
Left St Louis
Sacajawea -a shoshone guide
More land (north, west, and south)
Madison tricked by Napoleon
Henry Clay -Kentucky
John Calhoun -South Carolina
Invasion of Canada
William Henry Harrison
Battle of New Orleans
Ft. McHenry ---
Star Spangled Banner
turn to industrialization
Second War of Independence
Depression of 1819
influx of British goods
Bank of US tightens credit to slow inflation
Treaty of Ghent
Battle of Tippecanoe