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Airplanes

(MatE 10 report) Parts, functions and components of airplanes
by

Ariana Benipayo

on 10 September 2012

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Transcript of Airplanes

Parts & Functions Airplanes Cockpit Turbine Engine Wing Fuselage Winglet Horizontal Stabilizer Vertical Stabilizer Slats Spoiler Rudder Elevator Flaps Aileron Command and control Controls pitch Decreases drag Holds things together, carries payload Generates thrust Generates lift Controls yaw Changes yaw Changes pitch Increase lift & drag Changes roll Changes lift, drag, & roll Increase lift up-and-down motion of the nose side to side swinging 400 AD The Chinese flew kites 1480-1500 Leonardo da Vinci drew designs for helicopters, ornithopters, and parachutes October 22, 1797 First parachute descent is made by a human December 17, 1903 Orville Wright makes the first powered, sustained, and controlled heavier-than-air flight December 31, 1938 The prototype Boeing 307 Stratoliner, first pressurized airliner takes first flight July 30, 2002 First successful hypersonic scramjet engine test flight in Australia July 7-8, 2010 Bertrand Piccard and his Solar Impulse team make aviation history by flying more than 24 consecutive hours non-stop in a solar airplane. smaller wings located at the tail
fixed vertical and horizontal pieces
keeps aircraft flying straight
reinforced plastic & Stabilizers attached to the horizontal stabilizers
control climb or descent
provide lateral control pitching motion movable part of vertical stabilizer
deflects the tail from left to right
controls lateral movement (directional control)
operated by foot pedals sustains plane on air
commonly made of carbon fibers, aluminum alloy, or titanium Skin – outermost layer of the wings
Ribs – skeleton framework of the wings
Spars – main beam of the wings used for structural loading; attached to the fuselage vertical extension of wing tips
increases flight stability
the inner and upward angle, as well as the size and shape is important to its function part of the propulsion system that generates the thrust and mechanical power that fuels other systems
usually of light weight piston engines or gas turbines intake fan- must be extremely strong so that it doesn't fracture (titanium alloy)
intermediate compressor (aluminum); high pressure section nearer the intense heat of the combustor (nickel and titanium alloys)
combustion chamber (nickel and titanium alloys)
turbine blades- must endure the most intense heat of the engine (nickel-titanium-aluminum alloys) Often, both the combustion chamber and the turbine receive special ceramic coatings that better enable them to resist heat. change the shape of the wing to provide more lift and drag, which allows the airplane to fly slower
reduce landing speed- shortens the length of the landing rollout; flaps help the pilot land in small or obstructed areas by increasing the glide angle without greatly increasing the approach speed
during takeoff, reduces the length of the takeoff run
materials: Alloys, Reinforced Plastic, Composite and Carbon Fiber Materials similar to flaps (and work the same way) but are intended to provide lateral control, rather than lifting characteristics of both wings together, and so operate differentially - when an aileron on one wing increases the lift, the opposite aileron does not, and will often work to decrease lift
materials: Alloys, Reinforced Plastic, Composite and Carbon Fiber Materials allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack
higher coefficient of lift is produced as a result of angle of attack and speed, so by deploying slats an aircraft can fly at slower speeds, or take off and land in shorter distances
usually used while landing or performing maneuvers which take the aircraft close to a stall
usually retracted in normal flight to minimize drag
Materials: Composite materials, fiberglass, aluminum sometimes called a lift dumper
intended to reduce lift in an aircraft
plates on the top surface of a wing which can be extended upward into the airflow and spoil it
Materials: Composites, aluminum area containing flight instruments on a panel, and controls which enable the pilot to fly the aircarft
instrument panels (aluminium alloy, plastic dashboard)
instruments (glass faces), switches (brass or plastic)
insulated using fiberglass in sealed plastic bags
cockpit linings can be padded "leatherette" type fabric or preformed plastic panels
windows (laminated glass)
everything from wood and fabric to steel tube to aluminium alloy sheet to fiberglass and other composites has been used at some stage for the airframe main structure of the aircraft
provides space for personnel, cargo, controls and most of the accessories
two general types of fuselage construction: welded steel truss and monocoque design (monocoque, semi-monocoque, and reinforced shell) Metallic Materials Aluminum Alloys widely used in modern aircraft construction
are valuable because they have a high strength-to-weight ratio
corrosion resistant and comparatively easy to fabricate the outstanding characteristic of aluminum is its light weight Magnesium world's lightest structural metal
a silvery-white material that weighs two-thirds as much as aluminium
its low resistance to corrosion has limited its use in conventional aircraft Titanium lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant
ideal for applications where aluminum alloys are too weak and stainless steel is too heavy
unaffected by long exposure to seawater and marine atmosphere Steel Alloys great strength
high-tensile steels stand stress of 50 to 150 tons per square inch without failing (made into tubes, rods, wires)
stainless steel resists corrosion and is particularly valuable for use in or near water Nonmetallic Materials Transparent Plastic used in canopies, windshields, and other transparent enclosures
relatively soft and scratches easily; should be handled carefully
becomes soft and pliable at around 225°F Reinforced Plastic wingtips, stabilizer tips, flight controls, etc.
high strength-to-weight ratio
resistant to mildew and rot
easy to fabricate
sandwich-type material Composite and Carbon Fiber Materials extra high strength-to-weight ratio
constructed by using several layers of bonding materials (graphite epoxy or boron epoxy), mechanically fastened to conventional substructures
another type of composite construction consists of thin graphite epoxy skins bonded to an aluminium honeycomb core
carbon fiber- extremely strong, thin fiber made by heating synthetic fibers, such as rayon, until charred, and then layering in cross sections
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