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Copy of Copy of Chapter 25 America Moves to the City 1865-1900
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Chapter 25 America Moves to the City 1865-1900
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Narrowing the Welcome Mat
High birth rate caused alarm to "natives"
unhappy with the low living standards
Didn't like the fact that "pure" American blood was going to mix with immigrant blood
"O liberty, white Goddess, is it well to leave the gate unguarded?"
Didn't want immigrants to enter America
Anti foreign groups began to rise again and struck fear into the foreign population.
laws began prohibiting immigrants from entering U.S
workers under contract not allowed to be deported (1885)
1. Describe the rise of the American industrial city, and place it in the context of worldwide trends of urbanization and mass migration (the European diaspora).
2. Describe the New Immigration, and explain how it differed from the Old Immigration and why it aroused opposition from many native-born Americans.
3. Discuss the efforts of social reformers and churches to aid the New Immigrants and alleviate urban problems, and the immigrants’ own efforts to sustain their traditions while assimilating to mainstream America.
4. Analyze the changes in American religious life in the late nineteenth century, including the expansion of Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Judaism, and the growing Protestant division between liberals and fundamentalists over Darwinism and biblical criticism.
5. Explain the changes in American education and intellectual life, including the debate between DuBois and Washington over the goals of African American education.
6. Describe the literary and cultural life of the period, including the widespread trend towards realism in art and literature, and the city beautiful movement led by urban planners.
7. Explain the growing national debates about morality in the late nineteenth century, particularly in relation to the changing roles of women and the family.
The Urban Frontier.
The New Immigration
Chapter 25: America Moves to the City.
America moves to the city a couple decades after the civil war.
Population doubles from 40 million.
City populations triple.
America and Europe draw in crowds with industrial jobs.
1890- New York, Chicago and Philadelphia pass the million mark on their population.
New York most populated city second to London
Lower Broadway 1875
Endless waves of immigrants entering America
By the 1880's more than 5 million came and made their homes in America
Typical immigrant in the U.S were
Chinese not greatly accepted
Others were due to their ability to accept American culture and Lifestyle.
- came from the south and east Europe
made up 19% of Immigrants in America
Didn't adapt too well to the western style living.
Churches Confront the
Reactions to the New Immigrants
Government does nothing to help with problems concerning Urban growth
task fell upon the unofficial Government "political Machines"
lead by "bosses" like William Tweed
Houses for New arrivals
Food for the needy
Protestant Clergymen wanted to teach Christianity to the slums and factory workers.
wanted to create "Christian Socialists"
4) During this time religion was a big thing. It was taught at schools and was enforced at home as well. Of course there were other religions present thanks to the large amount of population mainly Catholic, jewish, and as time went on a new type of "religion" began. Darwinism was the belief in Natural selection. The wealthy were wealthy because they were meant to be. it confused the magority of the people because they would come back from school or work and start hearing about something that didnt involve god, it made them question their beliefs as well. it was because of this that religion suffered many problems. people stoped buying religious books like the bible.
5) Americans began to improve the school system for the population. More schools were built and were supported due to taxes. the city provided a better learning environment that the country did due to more teachers and work space. though education fro African Americans didn't start right away. in the south the school systemes were still primitive and lacked all decency compared to the ones in the city. then a man by the name of Booker T. Washington came into the picture and created many schools (elementary, high school, college) for African American learning based studies. they began to find better opportunities men and women attended schools whether it be public or private.
more laws began to exclude more people
6) Books were becoming a big thing during this time. there were many public libraries which were supported by Carnegie who donated $60 million in order to build about 1700 new public libraries. "Dime-Books were also popular. usually romance,religion and drama, some of the genres usually used in these books which were widely read by everyone. some wanted to do more than just print out fiction stories, they wanted to get the facts and give that to the people . journalism started. not to mention that art and music also blossomed a lot during this time. artists and musicians appeared from overseas and America causing a large craze to start up.
7) Debates over moralities were common because everyone had different views and opinions on certain subjects. such as divorce and religion. women wanted the ability to divorce their husbands without being looked down upon. the roles of women and family changed because in the rural areas everyone had to work, even young children, as they moved to the cities they didn't need to worry about this. women could stay at home while the children went to school, and their husbands got paid for his work.
Reactions to Immigrants
Jane Addams - dedicated to uplifting urban masses
established Hull House in Chicago, offering childhood services and help to immigrant families
- centers of women's activism and of social reform
helped single women and mothers find employment
Church Confront the Urban Challenge
protestant leaders worried over new immigration
- liberal ideas came into the mainstream American protestantism between 1875-1925, attempting to reconcile Christianity with new scientific and economic doctrines
catholic and jewish faiths also strengthened from immigration
Christian Science also founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1879
Darwin Disrupts the Churches
- English naturalist with theory that higher forms of life had slowly evolved from lower forms through mutation and adaptation
called "natural selection"
upset many christian religions
By 1875, majority of scientist believed in organic evolution, and by 1920, believed in Darwin's theory
split church community in half, creating moderate christians
Lust for Learning
high school and grade school education were becoming popular post Civil War, increasing taxes for free textbooks
teacher training school or "normal schools" expanded
adults seeking education attended lectures
crowded cities usually offered better education facilities than rural schoolhouses
Booker T. Washington and
Education for Black People
Booker T. Washington
- ex slave who headed a black normal and industrial school called Tuskegee Institute at Tuskegee, Alabama
taught trade school skills
Washington went along with segregation, trying to work within the system
Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois
- Harvard educated African American leader and rejected Washington's attempts to assimilate into white culture
demanded completed equality and founded
(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
W.E.B. Du Bois
Booker T. Washington
Hallowed Halls of Ivy
black institutes, colleges for women, and education in general becoming increasingly popular
land grant colleges - grant of public land that usually became state colleges
agricultural component that created A&M schools
ex. Texas A&M
Appeal of the Press
public libraries became more prominent especially in bigger cities and relied on public contributions
newspaper press technologies improved
- newspapers printed stories of scandal, sex, and vulgarism
- name given to Joseph Pulitzer's sensationalist articles in
Louis Post Dispatch
New York Word
rival William Randolph Heart started
San Francisco Examiner
Apostles of Reform
other journalists like
were more concerned with intellectual, religious, and cultural issues
believed in free love, very controversial for society at the time
- battled sexual promiscuity by created the Comstock Law, which allowed him to legally search and seize "obscene" materials
increasing independence for women highlighted some of the present divisions in American society
Families and Women in the City
urban families often poor, isolated from familiar places and kin networks
women and children often worked to help support family
divorce rate rising, while families having less children and delaying marriage in both rural and urban areas
- women standing for women's rights and equality becoming more widespread
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) - founded in 1890
Feminism and Suffrage
- right to vote
women such as
Carrie Chapman Catt
fought for women's right to vote
helped fuel the suffrage movement that would eventually give women the right to vote in 1920
black women often isolated from these leagues, so they created their own
Ida B. Wells
- anti lynching and National Association of Colored Women founded
alcohol consumption increased after Civil war and was popular among immigrant groups
National Prohibition Party - founded in 1869
Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
- organized in 1874
songs such as "The Lips That Touch Liquor Must Never Touch Mine"
led to state prohibition and eventually national in 1919, although temporarily
led to social crusader reforms such as ASPCA and Red Cross
Popular Fiction and Literary Landmarks
"dime novel" or cheap fiction about the West became popular
books such as Ben Hur and Uncle Tom's Cabin
realism, naturalism, and regionalism became popular themes written by American authors
- ordinary men and women in familiar surrounding and about contemporary issues
ex. include Mark Twain's
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
tales of friendship and trouble in Mississippi Valley
Portrait of a Lady
and Edith Wharton
Age of Innocence
- a more intense literary response than mainstream realism, sought to apply detached scientific objective to the study of human beings
ex. Stephen Crane's
Red Badge of Courage
Call of the Wild
all talk about moral/ social problems in society
- shared a common documentary impulse with realist and naturalistic fiction but wanted to chronicle the peculiarities of local ways of life before the coming wave of industrial standardization.
ex. Paul Lawrence Dunbar
Lyrics of Lowly life
realism and regionalism energized American art
famous artists include
Winslow Homer, John Singer Sargent, and Augustus Saint Gaudens
metropolitan opera house erected in 1883
jazz, blues, and ragtime music became popular in the South
City Beautiful Movement
- wanted new American city not just to look beautiful but aslo convey sense of harmony and order
John Singer Sargent
Business of Amusement
World's Colombian Exposition
- held in Chicago in 1893
27 million people visited
part of city beautiful movement
Business of Amusement
pursuit of happiness supported by Declaration of Independence and people had the desire and more time to play
stage based vaudeville and minstrel shows became popular in the South
Phineas T. Barnum and James A. Bailey
popularized the circus
wild west shows became popular because of individuals such as
William F. Cody or Buffalo Bill and Annie Oakley
Business of Amusement
professional baseball leagues formed
football became popularized with Yale-Princeton game of 1893
croquet and boxing among other popular sports