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The History of the Earth

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Krista Lucier

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of The History of the Earth

by Krista Lucier The History of the Earth THE BIG BANG The universe was once all in one small place. All of it's matter and energy had been squished to an
infinitely small point. Then... PRECAMBRIAN
ERA This era began with the formation of our earth! The earth was formed by the coagulation of materials coming together from leftover materials of the solar nebula that birthed the sun. At this time, the earth was k PALEOZOIC
ERA Around 460 million years ago, the ozone layer had finished forming, and continents, Laurasia and Gondwana, became separate!








The oxygen levels were close to what they are today, the average temperature was about
90 degrees Fahrenheit, and early land
plants began to form! MESOZOIC
ERA CENOZOIC
ERA Finally, we arrive at the current era! However, there are still millions of years to earth's history before we get to 2013.

About 50 million years ago, the atmosphere and temperature were much like they are today, and the days were just under 24 hours. Around this time came the ! Seeing as monkeys are ancestors of humans, this was of major importance to our evolution. 2013 BANG! it exploded, and
created the universe! After about 10
billion years, our
solar system formed. (13.8 billion years ago) (4.6 billion years ago - 550 million years ago
87% of Earth's History!) (AND BEYOND!) (550 million years ago - 250 million years ago) (250 million years ago - 65 million years ago) (65 million years ago - present day) About 100 million years later came the creation of our moon! The "giant impact hypothesis" tells us that the moon was formed from a collision between the Earth and another
celestial body. The left over debris coagulated and
formed the moon! Approximately 3.8 billion years
ago, water first arrived on Earth! This is thought to have been caused by comets coming from the outer regions of the main asteroid belt, and colliding with the Earth. The water that formed due to this occurrence is the water we still know and use today! This process took hundreds of millions of years. About 3.5 billion years ago, our planet finally began to see LIFE! First came the single celled organisms. Then came the production of oxygen by photosynthesis, which in turn began to form the earth's atmosphere and the ozone layer! Then came the multi-cellular organisms! Later came DEATH! During the first mass extinction event this world has ever seen... FIRST MASS EXTINCTION EVENT 550 million years ago, the earth's
rocks began to absorb carbon dioxide.
Since there was not enough carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the planet greatly cooled, and there was a great build up of snow. This caused a massive ICE AGE which led to the mass extinction of many
species. incredibly hot! Not much is known about
the arrangement of the continents
prior to 3 billion years ago, when a
few proto-continents existed. Around 1
billion years ago, most of the Earth's
landmasses formed a single super-continent
known as Rodinia, which broke up around
600 million years ago to form Pannotia. (dirty ice balls) Around 375 million years ago,
began to spring up and out!
Most of this life was in the , but eventually it came to the land. Huge forests of primitive plants covered the continents. life oceans Insects (arthropods) came into existence, but not the ones we know today... These primitive insects were absolutely ENORMOUS! This was due to the fact that the atmosphere contained more oxygen, so their bodies
could be larger than insects of today (thankfully!) About 390 million years ago, the first (classification for amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals) came into existence! One of the first of these species was known as "Tiktaalik", and is thought to have looked something like this: tetrapods Around 350 million years ago,
(seed-bearing trees)
came into existence! spermatophytes Approximately 300
million years ago, there was
a of many plants. The remains of this death eventually became our planet's coal - a large
k for today. large scale death energy source Around 250 million years ago was the dawn of the large reptiles - but this
did not last very long at all.
Just around the corner was the
largest in
history... mass extinction event PERMIAN-TRIASSIC EXTINCTION The largest mass extinction event in all of the
earth's history, the Permian-Triassic extinction
occurred about 250 million years ago. It wiped out a multitude of plants and animals. About 95% of the earth's species had died off, and our planet was almost lifeless...

It is said to have been partially caused by the
formation of the super-continent known as .
The tectonic plates were on the move again,
forming and
mountain ranges as they went. Pangaea volcanoes The Mesozoic era... widely recognized as the age of the DINOSAURS! The dinosaurs originated around 230 million years ago
and thrived for about 165 million years! These were not the only living things brought forth by this era however - among them
were the first angiosperms (flowering plants!) Around 190 million years ago,
Pangaea began to ! A new ocean formed, which would one day be the North Atlantic ocean, and the world as we know it finally began to take shape! drift apart thus creating SNOWBALL EARTH CRETACEOUS–PALEOGENE EXTINCTION and the first
MAMMALS! The most famous of all extinctions, the
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction brought forth the demise of the dinosaurs. This was caused by
a 35 thousand foot long plummeting to earth. The asteroid instantly vaporized as it hit, which gave off the energy comparable to
!
Loads of debris was circling the earth, and boulders were plummeting down! asteroid millions of nuclear weapons Earthquakes! Tsunamis! A great devastation over all, but in the end, the dinosaurs' demise allowed the MAMMALS to
rise! first prehistoric primate 47 million years ago,
the earth's tectonic plates were
on the move once more! Finally, the
plates were moving into their current positions! Mountain ridges began to rise up at the convergent plate boundary of India and Eurasia, which formed the k ! Himalayas It took approximately 25 million years
for the continents to reach the
point that they are at
now. Around 4 million years ago,
the climate was beginning to get
and .
Habitats were greatly changing! A rift opened up, and mountains grew along the side.

Around this time, there was an ape-like creature that is thought to be an early ancestor of humans. The mountains that had emerged due to the rift are thought to have aided in the evolution of these
apes to stand on two feet! hotter drier 1.8 million years ago marked
the evolution of k
Meaning "upright man," they were a
species of hominid that became extinct approximately 300,000 years ago. HOMO ERECTUS! And finally, 70 thousand years ago, the moment we've all been waiting for... HOMO SAPIENS! The first of our species existed
around this time! 40 thousand years ago, our
world experienced yet another


which is also known as the Current Ice Age.
This is because even though the ice began to recede about 14 thousand years ago, some glaciers from thousands of years ago still exist today in the Northernmost regions of the earth. ICE AGE
Due to the fact that climate change is always happening, I believe that the melting of the ice caps will lower the
earths albedo, and thus cause a positive feedback system
of warming. I also predict there to be a hot climate,
with the inner portions of Pangaea Ultima being
desert. This is because that is what occurs
when you are so far away from the
oceans! The most widely accepted theory for the
configuration of earth's continents in the future is known as "PANGAEA ULTIMA" and is believed to occur within the next 250 million years!
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