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Transcript of Dilemma Three:
He offered a deal to France saying that if they agree to stop attacking our ships, the U.S. will sotp trading with your enemy. Napoleon agreed and gave his navy secret orders to continue seazing U.S. ship sheaded for British ports. Madison decided to cut off trade with Britain. The British continued seazing ships and impressing American sailors. Due to this, Madison thought about abandoning Washington's policy of isolationism and going to war with Britain. New Englanders and Federalists oppposed war. Merchants in New England thought war would mean blockade of their ports by the British navy.
People in the South liked war. They resented Britain's impressing of American sailors and accused British of stirring up trouble including Native Americans in the northwest territories in states. Settlers soon moved into the Ohio Valley and pushed Indians off their lands. This convinced Tecumseh and his brother Prophet, two swanee indians, to gather Indians along the Mississippi River and fight back as one Indian nation. On November 7, 1811, their warriors were led by Indiana governor William Henry Harrison to the battle of Tippecanoe Creek. Congressmen from South and West were called "War Hawks" because of their eagerness for war with Britain. Some of these men were Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. These men thought that driving British out of Canada would make the northwestern frontier safer for settlers and that also Canada would be added to the United States. The main question, however, is could they start a war or should they keep peace? By Kealana Jackson Some reasons for war:
losses at sea
desire to make frontier safe Congress declared war on britain on July 17, 1812. They had an army of about 7,000 men who were poorly trained and a navy that consisted of 16 ships. The "War Hawks" thought that Canda was "a mere matter of marching". In 1812, 1813, and 1814 America charged into Canada, but was forced right back out. On September 10, 1813, the American naval force being led by Oliver Hazard Perry captured 6 ships in a British fleet on Lake Erie. This allowed William Henry Harrison to go into upper Canada and defeat the British in a major battle. Cheif Tecumseh was fighting with Britain and was killed in battle, but British drove America back over the border in December. Napoleon was defeated in Europe by 1814 and Britain was able to send 15,000 troops to Canada making America's hopes of conquering Canada end. In August 1814, a British army invaded Washington D.C. and burned public buildings, including the Capitol and White House. The British also attacked Baltimore and bombarded Fort McHenry, who gaurded the city's harbor, as american lawyer Francis Scott Key watched. The flag was still up the next day and Key expressed his feelings by writing "The Star-Spangled Banner." Just before the bombardment occurred, the British had surrendered to American forces just after the Battle of Lake Champlain that took place in New York. This news would encourage Britain to continue the war, but news travelled slow. During this time an invasion was launched by a British commander in America, setting their target as New Orleans. Luckily, General Andrew Jackson and his army of 7,000 (consisting of free African Americans, Indians, and Pirates) defended the city. A battle of bloodshed ocurred when British sent their 7,500 troops into battle on January 8, 1815 as Andrew's troops fought with deadly fire.
2,000 British soldiers were either killed or wounded
20 Americans were either killed or wounded BUT This battle was unecessary considering that 2 weeks earlier the American and British diplomats met at Ghent, Belgium and had signed a peace treaty to end the war. Neither side had truly won the War of 1812 and the Treaty of Ghent failled to solve any of the problems that had led to the violence. Impressment and ship seizures ended, but the war was still in effect. As the Indian resistence located in the Northwest weakened, most of the Native Americans who fought the previous battle with Tecumseh were forced out of the Ohio Valley. The War of 1812 was called "the second war of independence" because after not backing down from fighting the British, America felt as though it had become one nation. The opposition in the war effected the Federalists greatly and never recovered from their loss. Later on, Andrew Jackson and Henry Harrison would soon be elected president. Tecumseh The Star-Spangled Banner The Ohio Valley Andrew Jackson