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Nature & Nurture Ch 4 (Myers)

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Esther Grabow

on 25 June 2016

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Transcript of Nature & Nurture Ch 4 (Myers)

What makes you, you?
Nature, Nurture, & Human Diversity
Genetic Code
Cell
x 23
chromosome
23 from each parent
23 + 23 = 46
DNA
Genes: segment of DNA (active or inactive), units of heredity
Genome: complete instructions for an organism
common sequence
variations at particular gene sites provide individual uniqueness
Are we that different?
Each human is 99.9% the same at the DNA level
We share 96% of our genome with chimpanzees
However...
.001% variation in your genome and your DNA wouldn't match at a crime scene
15% variation in your genome and you'd be a cow
31% difference and you'd be a platypus
50% difference and you'd be a banana
Researching Nature vs. Nurture
Two kinds of experiments neeed
controlled environment, varied genes
controlled genes, varied environment
Twin Studies
Research shows identical twins more alike than fraternal twins
personality traits
behaviors
abilities (intelligence)
Is this surprising?
What does this imply for nature vs. nurture?
Adoption Studies
Research shows adopted children have personalities that are more like their biological relatives than adoptive relatives
Does parenting matter?
Parental Influences
religion
values
manners
attitudes
politics
habits
What about brothers & Sisters?
Heritability
extent to which variations between people can be attributed to genes
Heritability not used to explain an individual's gene inheritance
heritability of height: 90%
translation: heritability explains 90% of height differences observed between people
Molecular Genetics
benefits?

ethical issues?
Biology subfield focused on structure and function of genes, gene therapy
Epigenetics
"beyond genetics"
Study of influences on gene expression
Evolutionary Psychology
Looks more at how we are alike
Evolution of behavior and mind
Uses principle of natural selection
Around the time babies start walking they begin to develop a fear of strangers. Why?
Caution: hindsight limitation
Culture
: shared behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions passed down over generations
Individualist Culture
Collectivist Culture
priority given to personal goals
identity based on personal attributes
priority given to group goals
identity based on group membership
Temperament
individual characteristic emotional reactivity & intensity
Temperament/
Disposition
Environment
Personality
E
A
S
Temperament Survey
Emotionality
: intensity of emotional reaction
Activity
: energy output
Sociability
: tendency to affiliate/interact with others
Scoring
Reverse score # 6, 18, & 19
1 = 5
2 = 4
3 = 3
4 = 2
5 = 1
Activity: add # 2, 7, 10, 17

Sociability: add # 1, 6, 15, 20
Emotionality:
Distress add # 4,9,11,16
Anger add # 5,8,13,18
Fearfulness add # 3,12,14,19
Women Men
Activity 13.40 12.80
Sociability 15.24 14.60

Emotionality
Distress 10.08 9.72
Fearfulness 10.60 8.92
Anger 10.28 10.80

Mean Scores
Who Influences You?
Parents
less influence on personality
attitudes, values, manners, faith, & politics
obvious at the extremes
Peers
especially in childhood and adolescence
culture & style
Socialization of Gender Roles
Men
Women
1. Big boys don't cry
2. Stand up and prove how tough you are
3. Boys don't play with dolls
4. Boys who hug other boys are weird
5. Keep a stiff upper lip
6. Don't act like a sissy
7. You need to learn to take it like a man
8. Nice guys finish last
9. A good man protects and provides for his family
10.Boys will be boys

1. A woman's place is in the home
2. You're a tomboy if you climb trees and play sports
3. Someday you'll meet Prince Charming (or Mr. Right)
4. Girls can't do math
5. That's too big/heavy for you to handle
6. Knowing how to cook and clean makes you a good wife
7. Guys don't like smart girls
8. Women bosses are worse than men
9. Girls are cry-babies
Differences Between Cultures...
behavior greater difference than thought/feeling
certain preferences but ability to understand others
physical surrounding rather than mental difference
shrinking due to globalization
norms:

created rules for expected behavior
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/epigenetics.html

Influence of Environment
enriched environment
socialization
stimulation
increased brain growth
Nature + Nurture
gender development
sex
- biological and physiological characteristics of female and male
gender
- socially constructed roles, behaviors, and attributes considered appropriate for men and women
Genetic Code
Dad
r
r
Mom
B
r
Br
Br
rr
rr
The more similar the environment (less important), differences due to heritability increase


The more different the environment (more important), differences due to heritability decrease
Countries by
Individualism/Collectivism Scores
Full transcript