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The Protestant Reformation
Transcript of The Protestant Reformation
"I have cast the die... I will not reconcile myself to
them (the Roman Catholic Church) for all eternity...Let them condemn and burn all that belongs to me; in
return I will do as much for them...Martin Luther, 1520
Northern Europeans Face Uncertainty in their Lives
Fixed medieval economies were giving way to more uncertain urban market economies, and wealth was distributed unequally.
Spread by the printing press, humanist ideas in a classical education and emphasis on social reform quickly took hold.
Many people looked for ways to shape a society that made more sense to them.
Abuses of the Church:
Caught up in worldly affairs
Popes competed with Italian princes for political power.
Fought long wars to protect Papal States against secular rulers.
Fought to expand its own interests
Popes led lavish lives, supported the arts and hired artists to beautify churches.
To finance such projects, the Church increased fees for services such as marriages and baptisms.
Indulgences were sold lessening the time a person would have to spend in purgatory, a place where souls too impure to enter heaven atoned for sins committed during their lifetime.
Sale of Indulgences
Christian humanists such as Erasmus stressed for the Churches return to Bible study and to reject worldliness ambitions.
Protest against the church had been building since the 1300's led by John Wycliffe and Jan Hus.
Revolts against the Church
Found himself growing disillusioned with what he saw as Church corruption and worldliness.
In 1517, a priest named John Tetzel was selling indulgences for the rebuilding of St Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
Assured that the purchase of these indulgences would assure entry into heaven not only for the purchasers but
for their dead relatives as well.
Martin Luther: Catalyst of Change
Martin Luther became enraged with Tetzel's actions because they meant that the poor peasants could not get into heaven.
He drew up 95 Theses, or arguments against indulgences and posted them on the door of Wittenberg's All Saints Church.
Writing the 95 Theses
Luther refuses; he urges Christians to reject the authority of Rome.
He wrote that the church could only be reformed by secular, or non church authorities.
The Church calls on Luther to Recant his Views
Thousands saw him as a hero and renounced the authority of the pope.
All Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible.
prayers to saints
Simplified the elaborate ritual of mass by emphasizing the sermon
Permitted the clergy to marry
During the 1530's and 1540's Pope Charles V tried to force Lutheran princes back to the Catholic Church.
The peace of Augsburg in 1555 allowed
each prince to decide which religion-
Catholic or Lutheran- would be followed
in his lands.
Most northern German states chose Lutheranism while the southern German
states remained Catholic
Peace of Augsburg
Born in France and trained as a priest and lawyer.
1536 publishes a book on how to organize and run a Protestant church.
Believed in predestination- God has determined who will gain salvation.
According to Calvinists the world was divided into two kinds of people- saints and sinners. (Those who were saved could live truly Christian lives)
1541 Protestants in the Swiss city-state of Geneva asked Calvin to lead their community
Calvin set up a theocracy run by the church leaders
Reformers from all over Europe visited Geneva and then returned to spread Calvin's ideas
Calvinism in Geneva
Roman Catholic church felt challenged by these new religions which set off bloody
wars throughout Europe.
In Germany Catholics and Lutherans opposed Calvinism.
In France, wars raged between French Calvinists and Catholics
In England some Calvinists sailed to the Americas in the early 1600's
Religious Wars Break out
1521 Pope Leo X
Holy Roman emperor
Charles V declared Luther
Luther had help from powerful friends who gave him shelter and food.