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Transcript of Chinese Philosophies
PHILOSOPHIES founder: Confucius Master Kong / Kung Fuzi / Kung Futzu jhg Human beings are: teachable improvable perfectible HOW? personal & communal endeavors
> self-cultivation REN YI Themes Humanity Ritual Filial Piety (Ethic of Reciprocity) "By nature, men are similar;
by practice, men are wide apart." STUDY. PRACTICE. Political Dimension of Ren Core: humanity Elements: Ren Yi Li Zhi Xin Morality = phantom of humanity & righteousness "Mandate of Heaven" benevolence of his
that he has been
mandated by heaven everyday life; routines Shaping the rituals in a way
that leads to a content and
healthy society, and to content
and healthy people, is one purpose
of Confucian philosophy. distinguishes people Main process:
INTERNALIZATION Formalized behavior
becomes progressively internalized,
desires are channeled,
and personal cultivation
becomes the mark of social correctness Analects loyalty respect love considered the greatest virtue ought to be applied to the living and the dead Five Relationships: "The Gentleman" cultivates self morally
shows filial piety and loyalty where these are due
cultivates humanity, or benevolence The opposite of the Jūnziǐ was the Xiǎorén (literally "small person"). The character 小 in this context means petty in mind and heart, narrowly self-interested, greedy, superficial, or materialistic. Meritocracy Imperial Examination system in China pass = government post HONOR WEALTH Seek knowledge, study, become a better person! Tao = The Way Founders: Lao Tzu & Chuan Tzu peace&harmony = inner spirit By observing what was around in nature,
one would come to understand themselves
and other people. Taoists did not believe that government, laws,
and war should be the guiding principles of life,
but instead nature and harmony should be the focus. Nature constant
ergo, reliable source for harmony First teachers: artists woodcarvers butchers * These men knew how to be creative and learn
from other sources besides textbooks written by
others who came before them. Tao
- power which envelops, surrounds and flows through all things, living and non-living. The Tao regulates natural processes and nourishes balance in the Universe.
It embodies the harmony of opposites A person can only achieve perfect happiness when he or she is in harmony with the Tao. Thus, a Taoist's goal in life is to become one with the Dao. This is achieved through meditation, introspection, and wu-wei. The Dao is a force, not a deity, but Taoists believe that all the gods in the pantheon are manifestations of the one Dao. The Taoist's good and evil is defined by the Dao. Reverence for ancestor spirits and immortals feng shui martial arts Chinese alchemy astrology cuisine Zen Buddhism traditional Chinese medicine Qigong Tao "Go with the flow." Qi - essential energy of action and existence
- often compared to the universal order of Tao PRINCIPLES Te power virtue integrity active living cultivation Goal:
to reveal the soft and invisible power within all things ""Without action" The Universe has its own course. Man must be one with it. Pu simplicity receptivity pure potential and perception helps one to follow wu wei Tai Chi Chuan
"supreme ultimate fist" kung fu wushu qigong balance of opposites Yin Yang cold
Taoism founder: Siddharta Gauthama lived & taught in India an awakened or enlightened teacher
who shared his insights to help sentient
beings end suffering (or dukkha),
achieve nirvana, and escape what is
seen as a cycle of suffering and rebirth. Theravada VS Mahayana "School of Elders" Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia "The Great Vehicle" East Asia Foundation / Three Jewels: Buddha :: attainment Dharma :: teachings Sangha :: community ethical precepts support of monastic community renouncing conventional living development of mindfulness meditation self-cultivation devotional practices ceremonies invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas Buddhist Concepts: Life & The World Karma Rebirth Samsara Suffering's Causes & Solution The Four Noble Truths: 1. Life is ultimately [or leads to] suffering.
2. Suffering is caused by desires.
3. Suffering ends when we stop craving.
4. To achieve the liberated state, one must follow Buddha's path. Nature of Existence Three Marks of Excellence 1. Impermanence (anicca)
2. Suffering (dukkha(
3. Not-self (anatta) The doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda (contingency)
phenomena arise together in a mutually interdependent web of cause and effect Liberation Practices: Stupa Vihara Chinese religion gradually evolved,
alongside Chinese culture, from the
time of the mythological emperors
about 5000 years ago until the present. They followed the teachings of the founders of the three religions -Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism - up to whatever level they could. In times of trouble and distress,
they consulted mediums, fortunetellers
and diviners, who they believed could tell
them where things went wrong and whom
they had offended, and who could also provide
advice and guidance on how to make amends
in order to restore them to good health or to
bring about peace and harmony in their daily lives. 藝術 Got ? SINCERITY Alexa Ray Fortun Sources:
Coogan, Michael D. (ed.) (2003). The Illustrated Guide to World Religions. Oxford University Press.
Xinzhong Yao (2000) An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hoff, Benjamin. (1982). The Tao of Pooh. Dutton Books.
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang. Introduction to Buddhism: An Explanation of the Buddhist Way of Life, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 2001, US ed. 2008)