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Distinctive Processing Underlies Skilled Memory

James P. Van Overschelde, Katherine A. Rawson, John Dunlosky, and R. Reed Hunt
by

Kristine Cotangco

on 27 April 2010

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Transcript of Distinctive Processing Underlies Skilled Memory

The Sample The variables The Groups 126 undergrads in introductory psychology course
sample of Convenience
Lack of external validity
Data from Texas excluded
Groups divided using extreme split method Reliable: mean score of each group close to midpoint range of scores
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Valid: ranges clearly defined in method section Independent Variables Dependent Variable Quasi-experimental
-->Participants assigned to their respective conditions based on prior knowledge of football
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Experimental
-->participants randomly assigned to be given isolated list or homogeneous control list The participants’ ability to recall the target football team. ControL High Knowledge (HK)
-->Scored between 18 and 30 on test (M = 23.1)
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Low Knowledge (LK)
-->Scored between 0 and 11 on test (M = 6.0)
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If they had attended in Texas they could not participate in the study

Controlled for memory recall by testing both groups on standard isolation lists.

Position of the target in the list by having it in the 5th position in each list Data Analysis and Results
2 ANOVAs
target recall-
Marginal main effect of knowledge level, p=.055
_____________________________________________________

Main effect of list type unreliable
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Interaction was reliable,
--> p <.05, where HK participants showed an isolation effect
_____________________________________________________

LK did not show an Isolation effect
Background item recall-
Effect of knowledge level was reliable, p<.01.
This supports the initial hypotheses that HK participants would have better recall of a target in the isolate list than LK participants.
Quasi-experimental, factorial, between-subject design Knowledge level (High or Low) is determined by level of knowledge prior to entering the study
2 independent variable are knowledge level and list type

half of the subjects from each LK and HK groups were given
the isolate list
_____________________________________________________

half of the subjects from each LK and HK groups were given the homogeneous list
Internal Validity --> Control test makes sure that everyone’s memory recall is comparable
GOOD BAD Sample of convenience, thus not randomly selected
______________________________________________

Experimenters waited different amounts of time to administer the recall test.
(10 minutes after for the LK and 2 days for the HK)
Conclusions Distinctive processing is necessary to identify the target in the isolation paradigm High knowledge participants can identify the target in an isolation list This demonstrates the use of both organizational and item-specific processes in skilled memory Critical Evaluation The sample is neither random
nor representative and could be larger
Football as the area of expertise
as well as the choice of target team
(Longhorns) Clear operational definitions
(HK, LK score cutoffs/ extreme split), second set of isolation lists to control for memory ability
Not externally valid, very simple,
but the experiment was well controlled and in the end
the hypothesis is proven
Research question To evaluate the role of distinctive processing, specifically organizational and item-specific processing, in skilled memory Previous findings Previous studies have been conducted mainly
on organizational processes
and about how
the combination of organizational and item-specific processing
yields better memory than either process alone, revealing near-perfect recall Hypothesis Those with high knowledge of football (the domain)
will be able to better recall the college football team
(the target)
on an insolated list of university football teams than on the homogeneous control list
Those with low knowledge of football (the domain)
will have difficulty in recalling the college football team
(the target)
whether its on an insolated list
or a homogenous control list of university football teams Distinctive Processing Underlies Skilled Memory Overschelde, Rawson, Dunlosky, and hunt (2005) the end Presented by:
Kristine Cotangco, Lisa Inouye, Taylor Raymond, Jason Shao, and Safeena Walji
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