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Teaching talk as Transaction
Transcript of Teaching talk as Transaction
these activities include
practicing real-world transactions
T conducts practice activities as needed, based on the language analysis work already on the board,or using examples from the text or transcript. Practice activities can include:
Choral repetition of the phrases identified and classified
Memory challenge games based on partially erased examples or using lists already on blackboard for progressive deletion
Sentence completion (base sentence set by one team for another)
Matching the past-tense verbs (jumbled) with the subject or objects they had in the text
Dictionary reference with words from text or transcript
T sets some language-focused tasks, based on the texts student read or on the transcripts of the recordings they heard.
Examples include the following:
Find words and phrases related to the topic or text.
Read the transcript, find words ending in “s” and say what the “s” means.
Find all the words in the simple past form. Say which refer to past time and which do not.
Underline and classify the questions in the transcript.
T starts Ss off, then students continue, often in pairs.The Teaching of Speaking 35
T goes around to help. Ss can ask individual questions.
In plenary, T then reviews the analysis, possibly listing relevant language on the board. Ss may take notes
Planning prepares Ss for the next stage, where they are asked to briefly report to the whole class how they did the task and what the outcome was.
Ss draft and rehearse what they want to say or write.
T goes around to advise students on language, suggesting phrases and helping Ss to polish and correct their language.
If the reports are in writing, T can encourage peer editing and use of dictionaries.
The emphasis is on clarity, organization, and accuracy, as appropriate for a public presentation.
Individual students often take this chance to ask questions about specific language items.
Introduction to topic and task
T helps Ss to understand the theme and objectives of the task, for example, brainstorming ideas with the class, using pictures, mime, or personal experience to introduce the topic.
Ss may do a pre-task, for example, topic-based odd-word-out games. T may highlight useful words and phrases, but would not pre-teach new structures.
Ss can be given preparation time to think about how to do the task.
Ss can hear a recording of a parallel task being done (so long as this does not give away the solution to the problem).
If the task is based on a text, Ss read a part of it
1. By pre-teaching certain linguistic forms that can be used while completing a task
2. By reducing the complexity of the task
3. By giving adequate time to plan the task
4.By repeated performance of the task
Several methods can be used to adress the issue of language accuracy when students are practicing transactional use of language:
This example shows how-low level students, when carrying out communication tasks, often rely on a lexicalized system of communication that depends heavily on vocabulary and memorized chunks of language, as well as both verbal and nonverbal communication strategies, to get meaning across.
S1: You how old?
S2:I'm thirty-four.....thirty five
S2:I have.... a pain in my throat
S1:[In Spanish] What do you have?
S1:[In spanish] What's that?
S2:[In spanish] A pain. A pain.
S2:Yes, and it makes problem to me when I............ swallow
S1:When do you have?
S2:Since yesterday morning
S1:[In spanish] No, I mean, where do you have the pain? It has a pain in.....?
S2:In my throat
S1:Ah. Let it.... getting, er........ worse. It can be, er.... very serious problem and you are, you will go to New York to operate, so...operation..... the 7th, the 27th,er May. And treatment, you can't eat, er, big meal.
S2:Big meal. I er........... I don^t know? fish?
S1:Fish you have to eat, er, fish, for example
The following example:
others have reported that communication tasks often develop fluency at the expense of accuracy.
Despite these optimistic claims
An issue that arises in practicing talk as transaction using different kinds of communicative tasks is the level of linguistic accuacy that students achieve when carrying out these tasks.
Using Transaction Talk
Assigning students roles
Practicicing a role play using cue cards or realia
to provide language and other support
Practicing and Reviewing
Demonstrating the stages that are typically involved in the transactions, cliciting suggestions for how each stage can be carried out and teaching the functional language needed for each stage
Modeling and Eliciting
Real-world knowledge related to
context of the role play
The Language Focus
Teaching talk as transaction
As students is that they engage in the process of negotiation of meaning employing strategies such as;
The task cycle
The task is done by Ss (in pairs or groups) and gives Ss a chance to use whatever language they already have to express themselves and say whatever they want to say.
This may be in response to reading a text or hearing a recording.
T walks around and monitors, encouraging everyone’s attempt at communication in the target language.
T helps Ss to formulate what they want to say, but will not intervene to correct errors of form.34 Teaching Listening and Speaking
The emphasis is on spontaneous, exploratory talk and confidence building, within the privacy of the small group.
Success in achieving the goals of the tasks helps Ss’ motivation.
T asks some pairs to report briefly to the whole class so everyone can compare findings, or begin a survey. There must be a purpose for others to listen. Sometimes only one or two groups report in full; others comment and add extra points. The class
may take notes.
T chairs, comments on the content of group reports, rephrases perhaps, but gives no overt public correction.