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ILS: Hvordan støtte elevers læringsrettede samtaler i gruppearbeid?

PPU3210/3310L, 1. semester integrert uke
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Lisbeth M Brevik

on 17 April 2016

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Transcript of ILS: Hvordan støtte elevers læringsrettede samtaler i gruppearbeid?

Hvordan støtte elevers læringsrettede samtaler i gruppearbeid?

Learning to think together - and alone
Group talk in the classroom: how things normally are (s. 57)

Alternative solutions to problems are generated and allowed to develop and compete as ideas, without threatening either group solidarity or individual identity.

The seeming paradox of children working
in
groups but rarely
as
groups.

They may interact, but rarely 'interthink'.
"It's insanely useful!"
Læringsfremmende samtaler i to grupper.
Disputerende samtaler
Utforskende samtaler
Akkumulerende samtaler
Kollaborasjon eller samarbeid?
"Blir dette vurdert, lærer?"
Fagsamtale
"...så kan vi kaste litt ball mellom oss"
(Elev i filmen, Rosenvilde vgs)
Samtaler i par og grupper
Elev 1: "Ja det blir..." / Elev 2: "Det blir her!"
(Elever i filmen, Fyrstikkalleen skole)
Examples of ground rules generated in class
Example 1





Example 2

For stort fokus på
hvem, hva og hvordan?
Hvem skal samarbeide?

Hva skal gjøres?

Hvordan skal samarbeidet foregå?
Dialogduker
Lisbeth M Brevik: l.m.brevik@ils.uio.no
Mercer & Littleton (2007). Learning to think together - and alone. I
Dialogue and the Development of Children's Thinking. A sociocultural approach.
(s. 57-82)
The importance of exploratory talk (s. 66)
[norsk. utforskende samtaler]

Teachers need to foster a different environment for talk in their classrooms.

Learn
how
to talk together such that language becomes a tool for thinking, collectively and alone.
Learning to reason together: The
Thinking Together
approach (s. 69)

It requires children to become more meta-cognitive.

Each lesson is designed to ensure a careful balance of teacher-led and group-based activities.

It depends on children understanding that high quality speaking and listening is of great value in class.
The importance of collectively constructing ground rules for exploratory talk [utforskende samtaler] (s. 70)

An agreed set of ground rules emerges from joint discussion and collective consideration by the children and their teacher of what makes for productive talk in their classroom context.
Consensus and controversy (s. 72)

By stressing that
it is important that members of a group try to agree,
rather than simply accept the view of the majority,

...the children are encouraged to explore fully all differences of perspective and the reasons given.
The role of the teacher (s. 74)

Someone who can use dialogue to orchestrate and
foster the development of a community of enquiry
in a classroom

in which individual students can take a shared, active and reflective role in building their own understanding...

the students are apprentices in collective thinking, under the expert guidance of their teacher.
share relevant ideas
help each other to understand problems
mutually supportive
partners engage critically but constructively
justifying challenges and counter-challenges
offer alternative ideas
build positively but uncritically on what others have said
repetition
confirmations
elaborations
disagreement
individualized decision making
assertions (Yes, it is!)
challenges
(No, it's not!)
Kari Anne Rødnes (2009). "It's insanely useful!" Students' use of instructional
concepts in group work and individual writing.
Language and Education, 26
(3)183-199
Tre elever diskuterer ut fra ulike erfaringsbaserte perspektiver. De utvikler forståelse for romanfiguren Albertine (Christian Krohg, 1886). I egne tekster tar de veldig lite med seg fra samtalen. Den læringsfremmende samtalen i gruppen førte altså til økt forståelse for Albertine, selv om de senere ikke tok det med seg inn i en analytisk tekst om Albertine.
Tre elever diskuterer ut fra et felles analytisk ståsted, basert på utdelt liste over litteratur-analytiske begreper (bl.a.
perspektiv
). De utvikler felles forståelse for en Nemi-stripe av Lise Myhre. Senere, i egne tekster, uttrykker de den felles forståelsen fra gruppearbeidet. Den læringsfremmende samtalen i gruppen økte altså både forståelsen der og da, og kom samtidig til uttrykk i tre relativt like tekster.
Jigsaw puzzles: "By sharing this information and these insights with others, everyone will be able to benefit by learning more from the activity" (p. 197).
Elizabeth G. Cohen & Rachel A. Lotan (2014). Designing groupwork. Strategies for the heterogeneous classroom. NY: Teachers College Press
Eksempel 1: samfunnsfag
Eksempel 2: nasjonal konferanse
Elevene leste tegningen sammen, og tolket hva som måtte gjøres i hvilken rekkefølge. Når de var enige om første trinn, gikk en elev opp til en felles pc, og skrev trinn en. Dette ble vist på en projektor på en annen vegg i klasserommet. Sammen skapte de følgende monteringsanvisning:

1) Cut the materials, 8mm steel plates.
2) Spot weld it. Start with the back plate, position 1.
3) I would place plate nr2. It’s the bottom plate.
4) Then I would place the side plates. Position 4.
5) I would spot weld position nr. 3.
6) Cut and spot weld the front of the shovel, position nr. 5.
7) I would make the brackets position 6 and 7 and spot weld them to position nr. 2.
8) Fully weld the parts together. And remember the special electrodes, when you weld the front steel to the rest of the shovel.
9) Grind it and paint it, to get a good surface.

Lisbeth M Brevik & Marte Blikstad-Balas (2014). "Blir dette vurdert, lærer?" Vurdering for læring i klasserommet. I E. Elstad & K. Helstad,
Profesjonsutvikling i skolen
(s. 191-206). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
share ideas
give reasons
question ideas
consider
agree
involve everybody
everybody accepts responsibility
We share our ideas and listen to each other.
We talk one at a time.
We respect each other's opinions.
We give reasons to explain our ideas.
If we disagree, we ask 'why'?
We try to agree in the end.
Mercer & Littleton (2007). Learning to think together - and alone. I
Dialogue and the Development of Children's Thinking. A sociocultural approach.
(s. 57-82)
https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/collaboration-vs-cooperative-learning-nea#
Rødnes, K. A., & Ludvigsen, S. (2009). Elevers meningsskaping av skjønnlitteratur – samtaler og tekst.
Nordisk Pedagogik, 29
(3), 253-241.
Kongsvik ungdomsskole
Læringsfremmende samtaler i uformelle grupper og helklasse.
Interact
"Interthink"
Mercer & Littleton (2007):
Utforskende samtaler
Integrering mellom
pedagogikk & fagdidaktikk

Pedagogikk:
Mercer & Littleton (2007)

Fagdidaktiske eksempler:
Engelsk
: Brevik (2015), Brevik & Blikstad-Balas (2014)
Norsk
: Rødnes (2009), Rødnes & Ludvigsen (2009), film fra Fyrstikkalleen skole
Samfunnsfag/historie
: Dialogduker, Film fra Rosenvilde vgs
Naturfag
: Film "Using groups to analyze data"
https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/analyze-data-with-groups
Lisbeth M. Brevik
Førsteamanuensis,
lærer og forfatter
Kilde: Lisbeth M Brevik & Kirsti L. Engelien, ILS
Full transcript