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Presentation on the Endocrine System
Transcript of Presentation on the Endocrine System
The chemicals released by the endocrine system affect almost every cell in the body.
In fact, these chemicals affect so many cells and tissues that the interrelationships of the other organ systems cannot be understood without taking the endocrine system into account. Hormones are chemicals released in one part of the body that travel through the bloodstream and affect cells in other parts of the body.
They bind to chemical receptors in these target cells.
Target cells are only those cells that have a receptor for a particular hormone.
It may take several minutes, hours, or even days for the hormone to take full effect on the target cells. Glands are organs which produce and release secretions that send messages throughout the body . The Pituitary Gland Posterior/Anterior There is a chart of the hormones which the pituitary gland produces on page 1004 of your book.
We are only discussing five of these nine hormones.
The hypothalamus has indirect control of the anterior pituitary.
The posterior pituitary, on the other hand, is essentially an extension of the hypothalamus. A Diagram Pineal Gland Location of the Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Thyroid The thyroid gland's major role is in regulating the body's metabolism.
Cells in this gland produce thyroxine, which contains the amino acid tyrosine and the mineral iodine.
If the thyroid produces too much tyroxine, a condition called hyperthyroidism occurs; too little, hypothyroidism.
As thyroxine increases, so does the rate of protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism and the rate of cellular respiration and the amount of heat and energy released. Parathyroid There are four of these glands on the back of the thyroid.
Hormones from the thyroid and the parathyroid glands act to maintain homeostasis of calcium levels in the blood.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) increases reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys and by increasing the uptake of calcium from the digestive system. Adrenal Glands These glands release hormones that help the body prepare for and deal with stress. Pancreas Hormone Action Steroid versus nonsteroid hormones.
Please turn in your biology book to page 999. Complementary Hormone Action Prostaglandins Every cell, except red blood cells, produce small amounts of hormone-like substances called prostaglandins.
They are modified fatty acids that are "local hormones."
Some cause smooth muscles, such as those in bronchioles and blood vessels, to contract.
One group causes the pain of most headaches. Exocrine Glands Endocrine Glands Release their secretions through ducts directly to organs that use them.
Examples: glands that produce sweat, tears, and digestive juices.
These are NOT part of the endocrine system. Their secretions are hormones.
Hormones are released into the bloodstream.
Major endocrine glands:
Pancreas Now we are on page 1002. The pituitary gland is about the size of a bean, and it rests at the base of the skull.
This gland is divided into two parts:
The Posterior Pituitary
The Anterior Pituitary
It secretes nine hormones that directly regulate many body functions and controls the actions of several other endocrine glands.
Malfunction of this gland can produce such disorders as gigantism and pituitary dwarfism. The hypothalamus controls the secretions of the pituitary gland.
It is a part of the brain.
Here, the nervous system and the endocrine system interact to help coordinate body activities.
The activity of the hypothalamus is controlled by the levels of hormones in the blood and by sensory information collected by other parts of the central nervous system. Thyroid, Parathyroid Adrenal Cortex About 80 percent of an adrenal gland
More than two dozen steroid hormones called corticosteroids.
Aldosterone regulates the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions by the kidneys.
Cortisol helps control the rate of metabolism. Adrenal Medulla Regulated by the sympathetic nervous system, which prepares the body for energy-intense activities.
Ephinephrine (80 percent of total secretions)
"Fight or flight"
The hormones cause increased heart rate, blood pressure, and blo0od flow to the muscles.
Extra glucose is released into the blood. Pancreas It has both endocrine and exocrine functions.
Its enzyme secretions which break down food are released into the intestine.
Different cells in the gland release hormones into the blood.
These cells are in clusters called islets of Langerhans, after their discoverer, a German anatomist named Paul Langerhans.
Beta cells: insulin
Alpha cells: glucagon
These hormones keep the level of glucose in the blood stable.
Diabetes mellitus occurs when insulin is not properly used.
Type I and Type II Done with the glands... But there's MORE! Hypothalamus
Adrenal Gland Pancreas