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Transcript of Lipids
Vital for good health
Fats do not make you fat
Wide group of compounds whose base is long-chain fatty acids
Essential Fatty Acids
Building blocks of fat
In digestion, body breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can then be absorbed into the blood
Usually joined together in groups of three, forming a triglyceride
Long hydrocarbon chain capped by a carboxyl group (COOH)
Complex mixture of acids gives unique taste and smell
Saturated or Unsaturated
one double bond within the fatty acid chain
no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain
Solid at room temp
Generaly animal fats have high cocentration
Contain somewhat less energy (i.e., fewer calories)
The more double bonds in the fatty acid the more vulnerable it is to rancidity
Monounsatruated vs Polyunsaturated
Foods containing these fats reduce LDL cholesterol
Cis vs Trans
Hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond
Uncommon in nature but can be created artificially.
Increases Shelf life
Decreases refrigeration requirements
Replace other fats at lower cost
In frying can be used longer before rancidity
Not metabolized correctly
Elevated risk of coronary heart disease
final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-6 position
Should look at ratio of omega 6 to omega 3
correlated with arthritis, inflammation, and cancer
increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer
Double bond at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain
Western diet tyically low
Help prevent cancer, imflamation, developmental disorders
Should aim for 1:1 ratio
Essential Fatty Acids
Body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them
Used for biological processes does not include fats that only act as fuel
Originally designated Vitamin F
Lets talk Sterols
Found in every cell
Manufactured by the body but can also be taken in from food
Oil-based and so does not mix with the blood
Carried around the body in the blood by lipoproteins
Its bad right?
Contributes to the structure of cell walls
Makes up digestive bile acids in the intestine
Allows the body to produce vitamin D
Enables the body to make certain hormones.
So no then?
Act as cholesterol scavengers
Picks up excess cholesterol in your blood and takes it back to your liver where it's broken down
These lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout your body
Tends to deposit in the walls of arteries
White blood cells try to digest the it, possibly in an attempt to protect the blood vessels. In the process, they convert the LDL to a toxic form.
The process continues, growing the plaque and slowly blocking the artery
Should be measured at least once every 5 years in everyone over 20
Usually a blood test called a lipid profile
Men 35+ and women 45+ should be more frequently
Fats carried in the blood from the food we eat. Excess calories, alcohol, or sugar in the body are converted into triglycerides and stored in fat cells throughout the body.
190+ considered very high
higher number means lower risk
500+ very high
Store energy (triglycerides)
Transports fat-soluble vitamins
Begins in the mouth
Liver produces bile, stored in the gall bladder until it's triggered by eating foods that contain fat
Bile is released into the small intestine where it works like a detergent to emulsify the fats into smaller droplets
LDL vs HDL
Unsaturated vs Saturated
Omega 3 vs Omega 6
Polyunsaturated vs Monounsaturated
Using Fats for Energy