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Transcript of Kagan
Presenter: Dahlia Solis Sanchez
II. Cooperative Learning Inclusion Activity
IV. Cooperative Learning Classroom
Break (10 minutes)
V. Cooperative Learning Structures
VI. Cooperative Learning Structures
About the Presenter
Bachelor's of Science in Elementary
Master's of Science in Reading
Master's of Science in Education
36 years in Education PK-12 and Postsecondary
Cooperative Learning Trainer of Trainers
Cooperative Learning Inclusion Activity
Find Someone Who you don't know, pair off and share.
Step 1. Stand up and find someone who
you don't know.
Step 2. Ask 3 questions:
Grade level or content area
Why you chose to become a teacher
Step 3. One person speaks, the other
Step 4. When bell rings, switch roles.
Step 5. Pairs will introduce each other and after each introduction, everyone will give the person a hearty Texas
Step 6. We will conclude introduction
and go back to our places
knowing 2 different Kagan
structures you can use.
Why are we here?
Inclusion of all students especially ELL students
Go over structures briefly
Use structures to summarize structures learned.
Evaluation and Exit Form
Q: How does Cooperative Learning align with Direct Instruction and how can it help us with the need to boost test scores?
A: Cooperative Learning complements rather than replaces direct instruction; it is used to cement learning that occurs via direct instruction. Direct Instruction with no cooperative learning can be information in one ear and out the other!
Q: How can I cover the curriculum if I allow time for student discussions, teambuilding, classbuilding, and even silly sport energizers?
A: It is through student discourse and the interaction of different ideas that students construct meaningful learning. Often it is through peer tutoring and coaching that skills are cemented. And, ultimately, students actually retain a great deal more of what they say than what they hear; so there is an inverse relation between teacher talk and student learning.
Q: Does Cooperative Learning have a scientific research base?
A: Yes! Cooperative Learning has perhaps the strongest empirical research base of any educational innovation. Over 1,000 studies demonstrate the positive effects of cooperative learning on academic achievement, social/emotional development, cognitive development, liking for school and class, as well as a host of other positive outcomes.
Q: Doesn't preparation of cooperative learning lessons take too long?
A: The best answer for this question is, “Don’t do cooperative learning lessons; make cooperative learning part of every lesson.” Good cooperative learning does not require complex lesson designs, lesson planning, or special preparation of materials. Once a teacher knows and uses the simple structures, every lesson becomes a cooperative learning lesson.
Q: Where does cooperative learning fit into my lesson plan?
A: Cooperative learning should be a part of every lesson by the use of structures. For example, a teacher in her introduction of a lesson may do a Timed Pair Share to assess prior knowledge. It’s quick and easy and students are involved. After some initial teaching from the teacher, she might do a RallyRobin to have students review the key points of the lesson. After she models the skill she is teaching, the teacher might have students do a RallyCoach to practice and perfect the skill. For closure, the teacher might have students do a Team Statement about what they learned and they all sign it and turn it in. This lesson was accomplished with various structures used and getting all the students involved!
Why Do We Need
Q: How often should I use cooperative learning?
A: There in so one answer to this question but we encourage the use of cooperative learning at every opportunity.
Q: Does my classroom furniture have to be rearranged so that I can do cooperative learning?
A: Teachers can do successful cooperative learning working around furniture that is bolted to the floor! The easiest way to do cooperative learning is to have students form pairs and then for the pairs to pair up to form teams of four, gathering as best they can to face each other. When a teacher has a will to do cooperative learning, she’ll find a way!
Q: With students all interacting at once, won’t noise escalate and get my class out of control?
A: A teacher can have students formulate their own plans on how to use inner quiet voices (a voice that cannot be heard by a neighboring team), reflect on how well they are using their inner voices, assign a Quiet Captain for each team and teach students and have them develop silent cheers. Doing these things with your students will ensure that you’ll have very quiet and enthusiastic cooperative learning. Note: We are allowing students to do what they most want to do: talk, interact and learn.
Q: How do we grade group work?
A: We don’t. Cooperative Learning is for learning, not for grading. This is not to say that students should not receive feedback on the work they do in groups. Feedback from the teacher, teammates, classmates and their own self-evaluation is very productive.
Q: Some students refuse to work with others or can’t work with others. What should I do with them?
A: You may not be able to make a student cooperate, but you can certainly make it attractive for the student to cooperate. If you make it attractive enough, sooner or later the reluctant and even the openly obstinate student will eventually join in to work with others. Here’s what you do: Give them a choice of working alone or in groups and provide tasks that can be finished much more quickly and accurately in groups, and couple that with an attractive activity that can be done only when the task is done.
Q: I teach gifted students (or have some gifted students in my class). Is cooperative learning appropriate for them?
A: Absolutely! Most gifted students excel academically yet struggle socially. Cooperative learning will improve their range of social skills, including listening, taking the perspective of others, leadership, problem solving, conflict resolution and helping. Acquisition of these skills and leadership skills will determine if gifted students will be well-rounded and whether they will assume leadership roles in their work and in their community.
Q: What about the special education students that I have in my class?
A: Special needs students are better liked when they are included as part of a team than when they are just another individual in the class. So by all means include them in the cooperative learning activities that your students are involved with! Students are sure to improve academically and also dramatically in self-esteem.
Q: If students are talking in pairs or teams at once, how can I check for understanding and offer corrective feedback?
A: Set up a norm in your classroom that states: If you ever hear an answer you are not sure is correct, everything stops and you check a resource, check with another pair, check the book, the Internet (if accessible) and/or check with the teacher. A wrong response ensures that students will definitely get the right response and get deeper meaning to the lesson.
Q: Isn’t it wrong to teach using cooperative learning when we must prepare students for the competitive world?
A: Students need to know how to work independently; they need to know how to compete; and they need to know how to work cooperatively. In the real world, three out of four new jobs include working on a team at least part of the time. We live in an interdependent world in which the ability to compete depends on the ability to cooperate.
Q: Isn’t cooperative learning too childish for my high school students? Shouldn’t we prepare them for the rigors of the predominantly lecture-based university system?
A: First of all, students taught with cooperative learning achieve more (research proven). Secondly, students who have experienced cooperative learning are more likely to form study groups at the university level and those student who form study groups have a distinct advantage over those who do the work on their own.
Q: Okay, I’m convinced with the evidence and I’m committed to trying cooperative learning structures. How do I get started?
A: You have already started by attending this training! We will begin with some management procedures you can set up in your classroom and with some simple structures that you can use. We’re on our way to becoming Cooperative Learning Teachers!
Rules are instituted to limit
Keep your hands to yourself
Keep your eyes on your own paper
Teacher does the talking/teaching
Cooperative Learning Classrooms
Management skills are used to
Students are given more freedom but greater responsibility
The students talk/interact/share responses
Students share answers
The students learn through doing and interacting
The “Quiet” Signal
1. Hand Up, Stop Talking, Stop Doing
2. Look & Listen
3. Signal Others
Alternative “Quiet” Signals
Give Me Five
Clap or Snap Pattern
Choral Response (Q U I E T shhhhh)
If students take too long to respond, practice the signal until response time is immediate.
Positive attention is a tremendously powerful management tool!
Getting Teams’ Attention
“Thank you, Cougars, for quieting down so quickly.”
Keeping Teams on Task
“I really appreciate the way Team 1 is working so hard on their project.”
“Great job using your ‘Team Voices’ today.”
“Class, look how Pedro and Jonathan are working together. That’s cooperation!”
“Veronica just offered to share her textbook with Matt. Awesome, Veronica!”
Teams of Four Preferred
Teams of four are ideal because they break up evenly into pairs for pair work and
avoid the “odd one out”. However, if you have extra students:
1 Extra Student. 1 Team of 5
2 Extra Students. 2 Teams of 3
3 Extra Students. 1 Team of 3
Boys and Girls
Try to create as many teams of 2 boys and 2 girls. When you run out, create an all-boy or all-girl teams. If possible, avoid teams with just one boy or one girl because in this situation, the girl will be ignored and the boy will get too much attention.
Best Friends and Worst Enemies
Avoid putting best friends or worst enemies on the same team. Best friends may become a management problem, having difficulty staying on task. Enemies on the same team can be an invitation for discipline problems.
In a cooperative learning classroom, some type of cooperative interaction occurs every ten to fifteen minutes. Whether it’s a quick Timed Pair Share or a full-blown Team Project, students need close proximity to work in their teams without disrupting other teams. Usually, team seating is four desks pushed together so that each student has a “face” partner and a “shoulder” partner.
When teams are first formed, teambuilding is essential. Activities for this should be bonding activities, often using fun, nonacademic content. The goal is for students to get to know each other, work together in a positive context and establish a positive team identity. (When teams are having problems, ask yourself, “Do we need more teambuilding?”)
The Rationale for Teams
Share with your students your rationale for doing teamwork:
Research shows students learn more in teams than independently.
Working together is more fun!
Students need team skills and social skills to work with others in the workplace.
The Independent Option
Let the class know that if a student doesn’t want to work with another student or refuses to participate with the team, he or she has the option to work independently. Let him/her know that he/she may rejoin the team when ready to cooperate. Students find teamwork rewarding and rarely choose to work alone.
When teams work on an activity or project, they may finish at different times. Dead time is a waste of valuable classroom time and can be an invitation to discipline problems.
The best rule of thumb is to time activities so that students finish at the same time. However, if this is not always the case then you may incorporate a sponge activity.
Sponge Ideas for Team:
Puzzles and games
Draw a picture of the content
Write a song of the content
Explore content online
Sponge Ideas for Individual:
How can I use Cooperative Learning Classroom Management in my classroom?
Solving Team Problems
Finishing on Time
Will use Foldables for Notetaking on each Structure learned
Foldables will be used for note taking as each structure is learned.
Base Groups—groups are formed based on ability, ethnicity, gender and these groups can last up to a six weeks period, a semester or year round.
Formal Teams—mostly used for completing projects or group presentations.
Informal Teams—randomly selected or selected based on instructional needs.
By far the most notable names associated with Cooperative Learning are the Johnson’s and the Kagan’s. Roger T. Johnson and David W. Johnson are both brothers who are currently on faculty at the College of Education, University of Minnesota. Their research regarding Cooperative Learning was initiated in the 1960’s as they began investigating cooperation and competition in learning situations.
In 1985, Dr. Spencer Kagan introduced the structural approach to Cooperative Learning, which is now used worldwide in classrooms at all grade levels. His wife, Laurie Kagan, a former Director of Elementary Education for the state of Nevada, now develops all Kagan training materials.
Both the Johnson’s and the Kagan’s have developed criteria and principles for Cooperative Learning and they include that students have:
Cooperative Class Rules
General Guidelines for Classroom Rules
1. Most effective if developed by students – if feasible.
2. No more than 5 to 7 rules.
3. Stated in the positive.
4. Rules in clear view of everyone.
5. Rules reviewed several times in the beginning and periodically as needed.
6. Consequences for infractions known and consistently invoked.
Additional Guidelines for Cooperative Learning Groups
1. Rules encourage “problem” solving within the group.
2. Rules emphasize interdependence – sharing, respecting, helping, etc.
3. Rules underline individual responsibility to self and team.
1. As a team, we will solve differences within the group. We will only consult with the teacher when absolutely necessary.
2. Respect one another. Constructive feedback and no put downs.
3. Each person will do his/her part.
4. Stay with your group.
5. Quiet voices.
6. Help on another; promote learning.
Setting the Task and Structuring
1. Explain the Academic Task
2. Structure Positive Interdependence
3. Structure Individual Accountability
4. Explain Criteria for Success
5. Specify Desired Behaviors
Monitoring and Intervening
1. Monitor Student Behavior
2. Provide Task Assistance
3. Intervene to Teach Cooperative Skills
4. Provide Closure
Evaluating and Processing
1. Evaluate Learning
2. Assess How Well the Groups Functioned
Discussion: How do you see yourself managing a Cooperative Learning Classroom?
Structure: Round Table—In teams, students take turns generating written responses, solving problems, or making contributions to a team project.
• Participants will receive a card from a deck.
• Teams will be formed.
• Participants will volunteer for roles: Recorder, Reporter, Materials Manager, Quiet Captain.
• Participants will engage in Round Table discussion, contributing ideas on how they see themselves managing a Cooperative Learning Classroom. What will the classroom look like; What will the classroom sound like.
• When team is finished, chart will be posted and team can go on a 10 minute break.
• After break, presentations will be made.
• After each presentation, the facilitator will call a “cheer” to praise the team for a job well done.
Teacher will call on a cheer after each presentation.
Distribute"Classroom Management" Smart Card
and go over it
Teambuilding is an important part of cooperative learning because it is the process by which students get to know, trust and respect each other. Teambuilding lays the groundwork for effective teamwork.
1. Once you are in your team, everyone will take a turn introducing themselves by stating Name, School, Grade Level or Content Area you teach
2. After introductions, you will decide as a Team on a Name for your Team/Make a Name Tent
3. Using the Handout, decide on a cheer that will best represent your Team
4. Decide on roles: Reporter, Recorder, Materials Monitor, Quiet Captain
5. Teacher will call on different teams to stand up(alternately) and
GIVE TEAM NAME AND TEAM CHEER!
What structures have we learned so far? (Find Someone Who; Timed Pair Share; Round Table). How can we use these structures in the classroom?
All Write Round Robin—In teams, students take turns responding orally. All students write each response on their own paper or flipchart.
• Teacher hands out blank paper to each student or students take out their flipcharts
• Students take turns responding orally on how they can use, “Find Someone Who” and all team members write down the responses
• Continue with, “Timed Pair Share”/ “Round Table”. Extend your thinking in using these structures in your classrooms.
• Teacher will allow 5 minutes for this activity.
• When bell rings, Stop working.
• Reporters will share by teams. If ideas have been presented by the time we get to the other teams, share only the different ideas you have.
• Give us your “team cheer” so that we can all use it to praise your efforts.
• Students number off within team.
• Each is assigned a part of the total assignment.
• Each student studies or does his/her part.
• Students form expert pairs with persons from another team with the same material and further study their part and prepare to teach it to their team members.
• Students return to home team and teach each other their part.
• Teams review all the material.
• Teacher hands out reading material.
• Allow approximately 2 minutes to read.
• Bell will ring so that students can form expert pairs and work together for 2 minutes.
• Students come back/present their part of the reading to their team for 5 minutes.
• Teacher wraps up Jigsaw activity by using an evaluation instrument.
How does Jigsaw work? Give at least 4 essential steps to it; Why is it important to assign a team leader in Jigsaw; What is the role of the team leader in Jigsaw; Why is evaluation important at the end of Jigsaw?
Mix-Pair-Share—The class “mixes” until the teacher calls, “Pair”. Students find a new partner to discuss the teacher’s question.
•Teacher will use discussion questions to review material presented by team members on jigsaw.
•Students will “Mix-Pair-Share until all questions have been discussed.
Wrap up Jigsaw activity with comments or questions from participants.
This structure will be used for a Social Studies lesson on learning the States and Their Capitals
Inside Outside Circle—Students rotate in concentric circles to face new partners for sharing, quizzing or problem solving. The teacher prepares questions or provides a question/study card for each student.
•One face partner volunteers by raising hand to go to Inside Circle.
•Once the Inside Circle is formed, the other partner joins him/her and forms the Outside Circle.
•Partners will have State/Capitals cards and will quiz/coach/praise each other.
•When both partners have responded, they are to exchange cards with each other.
•The Inside partner will move to the right and face a new partner.
•New partners will quiz/coach/praise each other.
•Repeat this process until partners return to their original partner.
•Go back to your teams and Brainstorm how you can use this structure in Math, Reading, Science, Social Studies and have the recorder record all responses.
•Reporter will share with the entire group.
•Use cheer for praising Teams!
Wrap up Inside Outside Circle activity with comments or questions from participants.
Numbered Heads Together is a structure where students are placed in groups and each person is given a number. The teacher poses a question and the students “put their heads together” to figure out the answer. This activity promotes discussion among members and holds the individual as well as the team accountable for learning.
Numbered Heads Together
• In teams, students number off from 1-4.
• Teacher will pose a question on Cooperative Learning and students will stand up, put their heads together and coach each other with answer.
• Teacher will call a number and the students with that number stand up to answer for team. The teacher may have only one student respond to question or may have all the 3’s respond depending on question asked.
• Questioning procedure by teacher will continue until teacher has covered all the material.
How can Numbered Heads Together help specifically with the ELL student?
Team Stand and Share—Teams stand with a list of ideas to share. The teacher selects one student to share an idea and all teams check their list to check the idea off or to add it. Each team sits when all items on its list are shared.
• Teams will work together to create a list of how Numbered Heads Together help the ELL student.
• Teacher will give 2 minutes for creation of list.
• When time is up, the teams will stand with their list and be ready to share when called upon.
• The teacher will randomly select students from each team to give an item from their list.
• Teams will check their list to check the idea off or add it to their list.
• Each team sits when all the items on its list are shared.
Distribute “Kagan Structures” Smart cards to Participants and go over them.
Hand out “Harry Potter” lesson and have teams assign structures to activity sheets.
Have teams share structures on activity sheets.
Have FAQ session.
Brief History of Cooperative Learning
Types of Cooperative Learning Teams
Sample Cooperatvie Learning Group Rules
What is the teacher's role in Cooperative Learning?
First Team Activity
Jigsaw Expert Pairs
Jigsaw Wrap Up
Inside Outside Circle
Inside Outside Circle Wrap Up
Numbered Heads Together
Cooperative Learning Structures Wrap Up
Numbered Heads Wrap Up
Apply Formula to the number of students in your classroom and divide by 4
Example: 28/4=7 groups of 4’s
• Have participants number off from 1-7
• Gather all the 1’s, 2’s, 3’s etc. and form teams (move with materials to new location)
—Hand out sticky notes so that participants can answer the following question:
The most important thing I learned today was . . .
Have a Great Cooperative School Year!
Team members understand that they must rely on one another to accomplish an assigned goal. The learners need each other for support, clarification and guidance. If any team members fail to do their part, everyone will experience the consequences.
The performance of each group member is evaluated; therefore, each member is responsible for doing his share of the work.
Although some of the group’s work may be divided among members or done individually, a large portion must be done interactively. This provides opportunity for learners to challenge each other’s conclusions and teach and encourage each other.
Groups are required to periodically assess and reflect on their ability to function as a team and identify changes they will make to operate more effectively in the future.
Development of Small-Group Interpersonal Skills
Skills that are necessary for effective group functioning are taught and practiced. These interpersonal skills include giving constructive feedback, reaching consensus, involving every member, making decisions, communicating and managing conflict.